National Honey Bee Survey Wax Pesticide Sampling Report

Further sampling summary information can be found at the USDA APHIS National Honey Bee Survey Report page. This report lists the level of detection (LOD) and the prevalence (percentage that the pesticide occurred) in all samples taken across the country as part of wax sampling since 2017. For example, if the prevalence value for a pesticide is given as “10”, the pesticide was detected in 10% of all samples received. Finally, this table also provides the average and the range in ppb (parts per billion) of pesticides found in all of the samples.

Pesticide samples were collected from brood comb wax and processed at the USDA Agriculture Marketing Service (USDA-AMS). Sampling from bee bread was done from 2011 to 2017. From 2017 to present, the pesticide sampling protocol uses wax. Access the bee bread sampling report here.

United States Department of Agriculture

The Bee Informed Partnership
at beeinformed.org
funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture


Table: Prevalence of Pesticides found in all samples (n=697) analyzed for the National Honey Bee disease survey.

Pesticide Detected LOD (ppb) # Samples Prevalence (%) Average Level (ppb) Level Range
1-Naphthol 50.0-500.0 697 0.1 430.0 430.0
2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF) 1.5-5.0 365 69.3 2365.3 Trace - 78900.0
2,4-DMPF 25.0 332 70.8 2528.9 Trace - 69900.0
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) 4.0-5.0 685 1.3 33.6 Trace - 179.0
4-Hydroxychlorothalonil 2.0-10.0 365 0.5 22.0 19.0 - 25.0
4-OH-Chlorothalonil 5.0 332 0.3 Trace Trace*
Acephate 25.0-250.0 697 0.1 51.0 51.0
Acetamiprid 2.5-8.0 697 3.0 10.3 Trace - 19.0
Acetochlor 15.0-100.0 697 20.7 269.4 Trace - 740.0
Alachlor 15.0-200.0 697 1.4 133.4 Trace - 186.0
Aldrin 30.0 12 8.3 99.0 99.0
Ametoctradin 1.0-3.0 685 3.5 10.9 Trace - 70.0
Atrazine 3.0-4.0 697 26.3 17.9 Trace - 214.0
Azinphos-methyl 250.0 353 1.7 1576.0 Trace - 2670.0
Azoxystrobin 1.0-5.0 697 51.5 32.2 Trace - 1070.0
Bensulide 4.0-5.0 685 0.1 Trace Trace*
Bifenazate 3.0-15.0 697 1.1 15.8 Trace - 31.0
Bifenthrin 10.0-25.0 697 1.1 128.4 Trace - 315.0
Boscalid 5.0-10.0 697 20.1 27.3 Trace - 232.0
Bromacil 10.0-20.0 697 1.0 14.5 Trace - 17.0
Buprofezin 2.0-60.0 697 11.6 25.7 Trace - 543.0
Captan 50.0-250.0 697 1.0 455.2 Trace - 1000.0
Carbaryl 2.0-5.0 697 5.6 64.9 Trace - 452.0
Carbendazim 2.0-25.0 685 49.9 105.9 Trace - 2510.0
Carbendazim (MBC) 5.0 12 83.3 39.5 Trace - 130.0
Carbofuran 1.0-10.0 697 0.3 4.0 4.0 - 4.0
Chlorantraniliprole 13.0-15.0 697 10.9 30.6 Trace - 59.0
Chlorfenapyr 250.0 353 0.3 Trace Trace*
Chlorfenopyr 5.0-13.0 344 0.6 Trace Trace - Trace
Chlorothalonil 50.0-250.0 697 35.2 2599.1 Trace - 57400.0
Chlorpropham 15.0 685 0.1 Trace Trace*
Chlorpyrifos 5.0 697 29.6 21.0 Trace - 273.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl 3.0 332 15.1 10.0 Trace - 30.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA) 2.0 353 12.2 6.0 Trace - 20.0
Coumaphos 3.0-5.0 697 88.4 212.7 Trace - 9310.0
Coumaphos oxon 0.5-2.0 697 58.2 19.4 Trace - 1050.0
Cyantraniliprole 13.0-25.0 697 0.3 44.0 Trace - 44.0
Cyazofamid 2.0-30.0 697 0.1 8.0 8.0
Cymoxanil 4.0 685 0.1 Trace Trace*
Cypermethrin 10.0-25.0 692 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Cyprodinil 2.0-10.0 697 35.7 77.8 Trace - 3780.0
Cyromazine 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
DDE p,p' 3.0-5.0 337 22.0 7.0 Trace - 9.0
DDE, p,p' 2.0 353 11.0 17.0 Trace - 18.0
DEET 3.0-13.0 685 33.1 127.7 Trace - 3850.0
Dichlorvos 5.0 332 0.3 8.0 8.0
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 3.0-15.0 365 0.3 4.0 4.0
Dicloran 5.0-25.0 697 2.4 26.0 Trace - 27.0
Dicofol 5.0-250.0 697 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Difenoconazole 4.0-10.0 697 15.2 16.7 Trace - 129.0
Diflubenzuron 2.0-5.0 697 14.2 105.1 Trace - 7240.0
Dimethenamid 4.0-10.0 697 1.3 5.7 Trace - 6.0
Dimethoate 2.0-15.0 697 1.6 26.6 Trace - 101.0
Diphenylamine 2.0-3.0 685 14.3 5.9 Trace - 16.0
Diuron 1.0-6.0 697 33.0 13.1 Trace - 208.0
Endosulfan II 10.0-25.0 697 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Endosulfan sulfate 10.0-25.0 697 0.1 Trace Trace*
Esfenvalerate 5.0-13.0 344 1.2 22.0 Trace - 22.0
Ethofenprox 125.0 332 7.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Etofenprox 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 81.0 81.0
Etoxazole 0.5-5.0 697 0.7 3.3 Trace - 4.0
Famoxadone 5.0-25.0 697 0.4 18.0 Trace - 25.0
Fenamidone 1.0-30.0 697 2.9 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Fenazaquin 1.0-5.0 697 0.1 2.0 2.0
Fenbuconazole 3.0-15.0 697 13.2 42.0 Trace - 705.0
Fenhexamid 4.0-30.0 697 0.4 317.7 79.0 - 770.0
Fenpropathrin 10.0-25.0 697 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fenpyroximate 3.0-4.0 697 48.4 74.2 Trace - 4740.0
Fipronil 25.0-50.0 697 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfide 5.0 697 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfone 5.0-25.0 697 0.1 Trace Trace*
Flonicamid 7.0-38.0 697 0.7 74.0 Trace - 118.0
Fludioxonil 10.0-60.0 697 9.0 309.2 Trace - 5850.0
Flumeturon 2.0 332 21.7 6.7 Trace - 81.0
Fluometuron 1.0-40.0 358 0.3 Trace Trace*
Fluopicolide 3.0 685 1.5 6.5 Trace - 16.0
Fluopyram 1.0-5.0 697 25.8 25.9 Trace - 503.0
Fluoxastrobin 2.0-5.0 697 0.4 6.5 Trace - 10.0
Flupyradifurone 5.0-25.0 697 2.6 67.9 Trace - 403.0
Flutriafol 5.0-10.0 685 0.1 18.0 18.0
Fluvalinate 5.0-50.0 697 72.6 878.4 Trace - 76800.0
Fluxapyroxad 2.0 685 16.2 9.9 Trace - 158.0
Hexazinone 1.0-10.0 697 0.6 2.0 Trace - 3.0
Hexythiazox 1.0-15.0 697 22.2 3.5 Trace - 26.0
Imazalil 10.0-20.0 697 0.1 46.0 46.0
Imidacloprid 5.0-6.0 697 1.0 14.5 Trace - 24.0
Indoxacarb 5.0-30.0 697 2.7 13.1 Trace - 32.0
Iprodione 50.0-100.0 697 33.6 308.2 Trace - 3370.0
Kresoxim-methyl 2.0-10.0 697 0.6 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Linuron 13.0-15.0 697 0.4 Trace Trace - Trace
MGK-264 7.0-25.0 365 2.7 26.4 Trace - 52.0
Malathion 10.0-25.0 697 1.7 337.7 Trace - 939.0
Mandipropamide 2.0-10.0 697 3.0 6.9 Trace - 28.0
Metalaxyl 1.0-5.0 692 4.0 8.9 Trace - 29.0
Metalaxyl Total 5.0 5 20.0 Trace Trace*
Metconazole 5.0-10.0 697 3.3 43.8 Trace - 159.0
Methomyl 3.0-25.0 697 0.1 8.0 8.0
Methoprene 80.0-5000.0 697 2.7 4975.7 Trace - 6300.0
Methoxyfenozide 1.0-5.0 697 23.1 31.5 Trace - 1020.0
Metolachlor 5.0-25.0 697 41.8 79.3 Trace - 521.0
Metribuzin 5.0-25.0 697 0.6 Trace Trace - Trace
Mgk-264 20.0 332 1.8 1274.5 Trace - 2450.0
Momfluorothrin 25.0 685 0.1 28.0 28.0
Myclobutanil 7.0-15.0 697 0.6 86.0 Trace - 129.0
Norflurazon 5.0-15.0 697 1.0 27.0 Trace - 27.0
Norflurazon Desmethyl 5.0 332 0.6 11.0 Trace - 11.0
Norflurazon desmethyl 5.0-25.0 365 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Novaluron 5.0-30.0 697 4.6 13.3 Trace - 54.0
Omethoate 12.0-100.0 697 1.0 1220.3 210.0 - 3350.0
Oxamyl 10.0-20.0 697 0.1 Trace Trace*
Oxyfluorfen 5.0-100.0 697 2.6 64.9 Trace - 388.0
Pendimethalin 15.0-50.0 697 7.3 52.0 Trace - 234.0
Penthiopyrad 1.0-2.0 685 22.5 14.1 Trace - 203.0
Permethrin 50.0-100.0 685 1.5 1598.0 Trace - 3360.0
Phenothrin 30.0-100.0 697 0.6 641.8 497.0 - 941.0
Phosmet 50.0-100.0 697 0.3 388.0 Trace - 388.0
Picoxystrobin 2.0-3.0 685 0.6 22.0 Trace - 56.0
Piperonyl Butoxide 6.0 332 69.0 56.4 Trace - 3290.0
Piperonyl butoxide 12.0-15.0 365 57.3 210.7 Trace - 2620.0
Prallethrin 13.0-250.0 697 1.3 109.4 17.0 - 415.0
Prodiamine 10.0-100.0 697 0.3 40.5 21.0 - 60.0
Prometon 1.0-3.0 685 6.0 20.1 Trace - 293.0
Prometryn 3.0-4.0 685 0.4 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Propamocarb hydrochloride 2.0 353 6.2 15.4 Trace - 127.0
Propanil 5.0-10.0 697 1.3 29.4 Trace - 64.0
Propargite 2.0-15.0 697 43.2 58.2 Trace - 2710.0
Propiconazole 2.0-15.0 697 22.0 43.7 Trace - 1050.0
Pyraclostrobin 2.0-5.0 697 40.3 23.4 Trace - 415.0
Pyridaben 2.0-5.0 697 3.2 19.9 Trace - 96.0
Pyrimethanil 5.0-15.0 697 16.8 41.2 Trace - 1080.0
Pyriproxyfen 1.0-5.0 697 3.7 7.6 Trace - 30.0
Quinoxyfen 2.0-15.0 697 1.9 6.7 Trace - 15.0
Simazine 20.0-50.0 697 0.1 59.0 59.0
Spinetoram 15.0-100.0 365 3.6 16.0 Trace - 16.0
Spinosad 7.0-15.0 365 6.0 22.8 Trace - 40.0
Spirodiclofen 4.0-5.0 697 7.9 7.0 Trace - 17.0
Spiromesifen 25.0-50.0 697 0.1 42.0 42.0
Spirotetramat 2.0-30.0 697 0.9 4.5 Trace - 5.0
Sulfoxaflor 10.0-25.0 697 0.1 Trace Trace*
THPI 15.0-125.0 697 0.4 816.7 270.0 - 1880.0
Tebuconazole 5.0-25.0 697 14.6 45.6 Trace - 201.0
Tebufenozide 0.5-5.0 697 6.2 19.6 Trace - 196.0
Tetramethrin 30.0-125.0 697 0.9 10891.8 901.0 - 30600.0
Thiabendazole 5.0 697 1.0 32.0 Trace - 38.0
Thiacloprid 2.0-5.0 697 0.6 15.0 Trace - 15.0
Thymol 2.0-50.0 697 75.5 11968.7 Trace - 1440000.0
Trifloxystrobin 1.0-10.0 697 37.4 13.1 Trace - 257.0
Triflumizole 1.0-40.0 697 3.4 5.5 1.0 - 24.0
Trifluralin 5.0-13.0 697 3.4 21.7 Trace - 27.0
cyhalothrin lambda 50.0 332 1.5 Trace Trace - Trace

*Only a single detection made for this pesticide.

USDA-AMS tests for a broad spectrum of pesticides deemed possible to discover in honey bee colonies. The list of pesticides changes over time as new pesticides are introduced to market, and others are deemed to be unlikely to detect. Below is the list of all pesticides that have been tested for (n = 301), including substances not detected in any samples.

Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Azinphos methyl,  BHC alpha,  Carfentrazone ethyl,  Chlorfenopyr,  Cyhalothrin total,  Dichlorvos (DDVP),  Endosulfan I,  Endosulfan II,  DDE p,p’,  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB),  Lindane,  Fenoxaprop-ethyl,  DDT p,p',  DDD p,p',  Amitraz,  Potasan,  Imidacloprid 5-hydroxy,  Naled,  Permethrin total,  Pirimiphos methyl,  Pyrethrins,  Quintozene (PCNB),  Tetrachlorvinphos,  Tribufos (DEF),  Resmethrin total,  Prothioconazole,  Phosmet OA,  Methiocarb,  Atrazine CEAT,  Atrazine CIAT,  Benfluralin,  Ethalfluralin,  Diclofop-methyl,  DDT o,p',  4-Aminopyridine,  Mesotrione,  Metalaxyl Total,  Formetanate,  DDE p,p',  Cypermethrin total,  Cyfluthrin total,  Esfenvalerate/Fenvalerate,  Chlorpropham,  Carbendazim,  Avermectin,  Tetradiafon,  Quintozine,  Piperonyl Butoxide,  Phosmet Oa,  Parathion,  Norflurazon Desmethyl,  Mgk-264,  Flumeturon,  Ethofenprox,  cyhalothrin lambda,  Chlorthal-dimethyl,  Bentazone,  4-OH-Chlorothalonil,  3-hydroxycarbofuran,  2,4-DMPF,  1-Naphthol,  2,4 Dimethylaniline,  2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF),  2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM),  3-Hydroxycarbofuran,  4,4 Dibromobenzophenone,  4-Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Acephate,  Acetamiprid,  Acetochlor,  Acrinathrin,  Alachlor,  Aldicarb,  Aldicarb sulfone,  Aldicarb sulfoxide,  Aldrin,  Allethrin,  Amicarbazone,  Ametoctradin,  Atrazine,  Abamectin,  Azinphos-methyl,  Azoxystrobin,  Bendiocarb,  Benoxacor,  Bensulide,  Bentazon,  BHC-alpha,  BHC-beta,  BHC-delta,  BHC-gamma,  Bifenazate,  Bifenthrin,  Boscalid,  Bromacil,  Bromopropylate,  Bromuconazole,  Buprofezin,  Captan,  Carbaryl,  Carbendazim (MBC),  Carbofuran,  Carboxin,  Carfentrazone-ethyl,  Chlorantraniliprole,  Chlorfenapyr,  Chlorfenvinphos,  Chlorferone,  Etofenprox,  Chlorothalonil,  Chlorothalonil-4-OH,  Chlorpropham (CIPC),  Chlorpyrifos,  Chlorpyrifos methyl,  Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA),  Clofentezine,  Clothianidin,  Coumaphos,  Coumaphos oxon,  Cyantraniliprole,  Cyazofamid,  Cyflufenamid,  Cyflumetofen,  Cyfluthrin,  Cyhalothrin,  Cymiazole,  Cymoxanil,  Cypermethrin,  Cyphenothrin,  Cyprodinil,  Cyromazine,  DDD pp',  DDE, p,p',  DDT, p,p',  DEET,  Deltamethrin,  Diazinon,  Diazinon oxon,  Dichlorvos,  Dicloran,  Dicofol,  Dieldrin,  Difenoconazole,  Diflubenzuron,  Dimethenamid,  Dimethoate,  Dimethomorph,  Dinotefuran,  Diphenamid,  Diphenylamine,  Diuron,  Emamectin Benzoate,  Alpha-endosulfan,  Beta-endosulfan,  Endosulfan sulfate,  Endrin,  Epoxiconazole,  Esfenvalerate,  Fenvalerate,  Ethion,  Ethofumesate,  Etoxazole,  Etridiazole,  Famoxadone,  Fenamidone,  Fenarimol,  Fenazaquin,  Fenbuconazole,  Fenhexamid,  Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl,  Fenpropathrin,  Fenpyroximate,  Fenthion,  Fipronil,  Fipronil sulfide,  Fipronil sulfone,  Flonicamid,  Flubendiamide,  Fludioxonil,  Fluometuron,  Fluopicolide,  Fluopyram,  Fluoxastrobin,  Flupyradifurone,  Fluridone,  Flutolanil,  Flutriafol,  Fluvalinate,  Fluxapyroxad,  Heptachlor,  Heptachlor epoxide,  Hexachlorobenzene,  Hexazinone,  Hexythiazox,  Hydroprene,  Imazalil,  Imidacloprid,  Imidacloprid-5-hydroxy,  Imidacloprid olefin,  Indoxacarb,  Iprodione,  Isoprocarb,  Kresoxim-methyl,  Linuron,  Malathion,  Mandipropamide,  Metalaxyl,  Metconazole,  Methamidophos,  Methidathion,  Methomyl,  Pyraclostrobin,  Methoprene,  Methoxyfenozide,  Metolachlor,  Metribuzin,  MGK-264,  MGK-326,  Momfluorothrin,  Myclobutanil,  Norflurazon,  Norflurazon desmethyl,  Novaluron,  Omethoate,  Oxamyl,  Oxyfluorfen,  Paradichlorobenzene,  Parathion ethyl,  Parathion methyl,  Penconazole,  Pendimethalin,  Penthiopyrad,  Permethrin,  Cispermethrin,  Transpermethrin,  Phenothrin,  Phorate,  Phosalone,  Phosmet,  Phosmet oxon,  Picoxystrobin,  Piperonyl butoxide,  Pirimiphos-methyl,  Prallethrin,  Prodiamine,  Profenofos,  Prometon,  Prometryn,  Pronamide,  Propachlor,  Propamocarb hydrochloride,  Propanil,  Propargite,  Propazine,  Propetamphos,  Propham,  Propiconazole,  Pymetrozine,  Pyrethrins (cinerin I),  Pyridaben,  Pyrimethanil,  Pyriproxyfen,  Quinoxyfen,  Quintozene,  Resmethrin,  Resmethrin, cis,  Resmethrin, trans,  Sethoxydim,  Simazine,  Spinetoram,  Spinosad,  Spinosyn A,  Spinosyn D,  Spirodiclofen,  Spiromesifen,  Spirotetramat,  Sulfoxaflor,  Tebuconazole,  Tebufenozide,  Tebuthiuron,  Tefluthrin,  Tetrachlorvinphos (Dietreen T),  Tetraconazole,  Tetradifon,  Tetramethrin,  Thiabendazole,  Thiacloprid,  Thiamethoxam,  THPI,  Thymol,  Tolfenpyrad,  Triadimefon,  Triadimenol,  Triazophos,  Tribufos,  Trifloxystrobin,  Triflumizole,  Trifluralin,  Triticonazole,  Vinclozolin, 

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