National Honey Bee Survey Wax Pesticide Sampling Report

Further sampling summary information can be found at the USDA APHIS National Honey Bee Survey Report page. This report lists the level of detection (LOD) and the prevalence (percentage that the pesticide occurred) in all samples taken across the country as part of wax sampling since 2017. For example, if the prevalence value for a pesticide is given as “10”, the pesticide was detected in 10% of all samples received. Finally, this table also provides the average and the range in ppb (parts per billion) of pesticides found in all of the samples.

Pesticide samples were collected from brood comb wax and processed at the USDA Agriculture Marketing Service (USDA-AMS). Sampling from bee bread was done from 2011 to 2017. From 2017 to present, the pesticide sampling protocol uses wax. Access the bee bread sampling report here.

United States Department of Agriculture

The Bee Informed Partnership
at beeinformed.org
funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture


Table: Prevalence of Pesticides found in all samples (n=730) analyzed for the National Honey Bee disease survey.

Pesticide Detected LOD (ppb) # Samples Prevalence (%) Average Level (ppb) Level Range
1-Naphthol 50.0-500.0 730 0.1 430.0 430.0
2,4-DMPF 1.5-25.0 730 70.8 3098.6 Trace - 258000.0
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) 2.0-5.0 718 1.8 29.4 Trace - 179.0
4-Hydroxychlorothalonil 2.0-10.0 365 0.5 22.0 19.0 - 25.0
4-OH-Chlorothalonil 2.0-5.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
Acephate 20.0-250.0 730 0.1 51.0 51.0
Acetamiprid 2.5-8.0 730 2.9 10.3 Trace - 19.0
Acetochlor 15.0-100.0 730 20.4 264.3 Trace - 740.0
Alachlor 15.0-200.0 730 1.5 151.2 Trace - 240.0
Aldrin 30.0 12 8.3 99.0 99.0
Ametoctradin 1.0-3.0 718 3.9 11.4 Trace - 70.0
Atrazine 1.2-4.0 730 26.4 17.7 Trace - 214.0
Azinphos-methyl 250.0 353 1.7 1576.0 Trace - 2670.0
Azoxystrobin 0.8-5.0 730 52.5 33.9 Trace - 1070.0
Bensulide 2.0-5.0 718 0.1 Trace Trace*
Bifenazate 1.6-15.0 730 1.2 15.2 Trace - 31.0
Bifenthrin 10.0-25.0 730 1.6 132.9 Trace - 315.0
Boscalid 2.0-10.0 730 21.0 26.1 Trace - 232.0
Bromacil 4.0-20.0 730 1.0 14.5 Trace - 17.0
Buprofezin 0.8-60.0 730 12.3 24.8 Trace - 543.0
Captan 50.0-250.0 730 1.5 455.2 Trace - 1000.0
Carbaryl 2.0-5.0 730 5.5 62.1 Trace - 452.0
Carbendazim 2.0-25.0 718 50.4 104.5 Trace - 2510.0
Carbendazim (MBC) 5.0 12 83.3 39.5 Trace - 130.0
Carbofuran 0.8-10.0 730 0.4 3.3 2.0 - 4.0
Chlorantraniliprole 5.2-15.0 730 11.5 32.2 Trace - 130.0
Chlorfenapyr 250.0 353 0.3 Trace Trace*
Chlorfenopyr 5.0-13.0 377 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Chlorothalonil 10.0-250.0 730 36.4 2134.1 Trace - 57400.0
Chlorpropham 6.0-15.0 718 0.1 Trace Trace*
Chlorpyrifos 5.0 730 29.9 20.7 Trace - 273.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl 3.0 365 14.0 8.6 Trace - 30.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA) 2.0 353 12.2 6.0 Trace - 20.0
Coumaphos 2.0-5.0 730 88.4 214.8 Trace - 9310.0
Coumaphos oxon 0.4-2.0 730 58.8 19.6 Trace - 1050.0
Cyantraniliprole 5.2-25.0 730 0.3 44.0 Trace - 44.0
Cyazofamid 0.8-30.0 730 0.1 8.0 8.0
Cymoxanil 1.6-4.0 718 0.1 Trace Trace*
Cypermethrin 10.0-25.0 725 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Cyprodinil 1.2-10.0 730 35.2 75.9 Trace - 3780.0
Cyromazine 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
DDE p,p' 3.0-5.0 370 20.3 7.0 Trace - 9.0
DDE, p,p' 2.0 353 11.0 17.0 Trace - 18.0
DEET 3.0-13.0 718 32.6 125.2 Trace - 3850.0
Dichlorvos 2.0-5.0 365 0.3 8.0 8.0
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 3.0-15.0 365 0.3 4.0 4.0
Dicloran 5.0-25.0 730 2.5 25.7 Trace - 27.0
Dicofol 5.0-250.0 730 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Difenoconazole 1.6-10.0 730 15.9 16.8 Trace - 129.0
Diflubenzuron 1.2-5.0 730 13.6 105.1 Trace - 7240.0
Dimethenamid 1.6-10.0 730 1.4 5.7 Trace - 6.0
Dimethoate 2.0-15.0 730 1.5 26.6 Trace - 101.0
Diphenylamine 2.0-3.0 718 13.6 5.9 Trace - 16.0
Diuron 1.0-6.0 730 33.7 14.0 Trace - 208.0
Endosulfan II 10.0-25.0 730 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Endosulfan sulfate 10.0-25.0 730 0.1 Trace Trace*
Esfenvalerate 5.0-13.0 377 1.1 22.0 Trace - 22.0
Ethofenprox 125.0 365 6.8 Trace Trace - Trace
Etofenprox 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 81.0 81.0
Etoxazole 0.4-5.0 730 0.7 3.3 Trace - 4.0
Famoxadone 3.2-25.0 730 0.4 18.0 Trace - 25.0
Fenamidone 1.0-30.0 730 2.7 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Fenazaquin 0.4-5.0 730 0.1 2.0 2.0
Fenbuconazole 1.2-15.0 730 14.2 38.8 Trace - 705.0
Fenhexamid 3.6-30.0 730 0.4 317.7 79.0 - 770.0
Fenpropathrin 10.0-25.0 730 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fenpyroximate 1.2-4.0 730 48.4 73.1 Trace - 4740.0
Fipronil 25.0-50.0 730 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfide 5.0 730 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfone 5.0-25.0 730 0.1 Trace Trace*
Flonicamid 7.0-38.0 730 0.7 74.0 Trace - 118.0
Fludioxonil 10.0-60.0 730 9.3 278.5 Trace - 5850.0
Flumeturon 0.8-2.0 365 21.6 7.4 Trace - 81.0
Fluometuron 1.0-40.0 358 0.3 Trace Trace*
Fluopicolide 1.2-3.0 718 1.5 7.1 Trace - 16.0
Fluopyram 0.8-5.0 730 26.2 26.3 Trace - 503.0
Fluoxastrobin 0.8-5.0 730 0.4 6.5 Trace - 10.0
Flupyradifurone 2.0-25.0 730 2.7 62.9 Trace - 403.0
Fluridone 0.4-5.0 730 0.1 1.0 1.0
Flutriafol 2.0-10.0 718 0.1 18.0 18.0
Fluvalinate 5.0-50.0 730 71.6 852.9 Trace - 76800.0
Fluxapyroxad 0.8-2.0 718 16.4 9.7 Trace - 158.0
Hexazinone 0.4-10.0 730 0.5 2.0 Trace - 3.0
Hexythiazox 0.4-15.0 730 21.9 3.5 Trace - 26.0
Imazalil 4.0-20.0 730 0.1 46.0 46.0
Imidacloprid 2.0-6.0 730 1.0 14.5 Trace - 24.0
Indoxacarb 2.0-30.0 730 2.7 13.1 Trace - 32.0
Iprodione 50.0-100.0 730 33.6 303.0 Trace - 3370.0
Kresoxim-methyl 1.2-10.0 730 0.5 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Linuron 5.2-15.0 730 0.4 Trace Trace - Trace
MGK-264 7.0-25.0 365 2.7 26.4 Trace - 52.0
Malathion 10.0-25.0 730 1.6 337.7 Trace - 939.0
Mandipropamide 0.8-10.0 730 3.2 6.9 Trace - 28.0
Metalaxyl 0.8-5.0 725 4.4 8.3 Trace - 29.0
Metalaxyl Total 5.0 5 20.0 Trace Trace*
Metconazole 2.0-10.0 730 3.4 41.5 Trace - 159.0
Methomyl 2.0-25.0 730 0.1 8.0 8.0
Methoprene 80.0-5000.0 730 2.6 4975.7 Trace - 6300.0
Methoxyfenozide 0.8-5.0 730 24.0 30.2 Trace - 1020.0
Metolachlor 5.0-25.0 730 41.0 77.3 Trace - 521.0
Metribuzin 5.0-25.0 730 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Mgk-264 4.0-20.0 365 2.5 1274.5 Trace - 2450.0
Momfluorothrin 25.0 718 0.1 28.0 28.0
Myclobutanil 3.2-15.0 730 0.5 86.0 Trace - 129.0
Norflurazon 2.0-15.0 730 1.0 27.0 Trace - 27.0
Norflurazon Desmethyl 2.0-5.0 365 0.5 11.0 Trace - 11.0
Norflurazon desmethyl 5.0-25.0 365 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Novaluron 2.0-30.0 730 4.4 13.3 Trace - 54.0
Omethoate 12.0-100.0 730 1.0 1220.3 210.0 - 3350.0
Oxamyl 4.0-20.0 730 0.1 Trace Trace*
Oxyfluorfen 5.0-100.0 730 3.0 64.9 Trace - 388.0
Pendimethalin 15.0-50.0 730 7.0 52.0 Trace - 234.0
Penthiopyrad 0.8-2.0 718 23.5 13.8 Trace - 203.0
Permethrin 25.0-100.0 718 1.4 1598.0 Trace - 3360.0
Phenothrin 30.0-100.0 730 0.5 641.8 497.0 - 941.0
Phosmet 50.0-100.0 730 0.5 226.0 Trace - 388.0
Picoxystrobin 0.8-3.0 718 0.6 22.0 Trace - 56.0
Piperonyl Butoxide 1.2-6.0 365 68.8 56.5 Trace - 3290.0
Piperonyl butoxide 12.0-15.0 365 57.3 210.7 Trace - 2620.0
Prallethrin 13.0-250.0 730 1.2 109.4 17.0 - 415.0
Prodiamine 8.0-100.0 730 0.3 40.5 21.0 - 60.0
Prometon 1.0-3.0 718 6.1 18.6 Trace - 293.0
Prometryn 1.2-4.0 718 0.4 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Propamocarb hydrochloride 2.0 353 6.2 15.4 Trace - 127.0
Propanil 2.0-10.0 730 1.2 29.4 Trace - 64.0
Propargite 1.2-15.0 730 43.4 57.0 Trace - 2710.0
Propiconazole 2.0-15.0 730 22.7 42.7 Trace - 1050.0
Pyraclostrobin 1.2-5.0 730 40.8 23.4 Trace - 415.0
Pyridaben 1.2-5.0 730 3.7 18.1 Trace - 96.0
Pyrimethanil 2.0-15.0 730 17.1 39.9 Trace - 1080.0
Pyriproxyfen 1.0-5.0 730 4.1 7.6 Trace - 30.0
Quinoxyfen 0.8-15.0 730 2.1 5.7 Trace - 15.0
Quintozine 5.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
Simazine 8.0-50.0 730 0.1 59.0 59.0
Spinetoram 15.0-100.0 365 3.6 16.0 Trace - 16.0
Spinosad 7.0-15.0 365 6.0 22.8 Trace - 40.0
Spirodiclofen 1.6-5.0 730 7.7 7.0 Trace - 17.0
Spiromesifen 15.2-50.0 730 0.1 42.0 42.0
Spirotetramat 1.2-30.0 730 0.8 4.5 Trace - 5.0
Sulfoxaflor 4.0-25.0 730 0.1 Trace Trace*
THPI 15.0-125.0 730 0.4 816.7 270.0 - 1880.0
Tebuconazole 5.0-25.0 730 15.8 45.5 Trace - 201.0
Tebufenozide 0.4-5.0 730 6.0 20.8 Trace - 196.0
Tetramethrin 30.0-125.0 730 0.8 10891.8 901.0 - 30600.0
Thiabendazole 2.0-5.0 730 1.0 32.0 Trace - 38.0
Thiacloprid 1.2-5.0 730 0.5 15.0 Trace - 15.0
Thymol 2.0-50.0 730 74.9 12271.3 Trace - 1440000.0
Tribufos 13.0-100.0 718 0.1 31.0 31.0
Trifloxystrobin 0.4-10.0 730 37.9 13.2 Trace - 257.0
Triflumizole 0.8-40.0 730 3.3 5.5 1.0 - 24.0
Trifluralin 5.0-13.0 730 3.6 21.7 Trace - 27.0
cyhalothrin lambda 25.0-50.0 365 1.4 Trace Trace - Trace

*Only a single detection made for this pesticide.

USDA-AMS tests for a broad spectrum of pesticides deemed possible to discover in honey bee colonies. The list of pesticides changes over time as new pesticides are introduced to market, and others are deemed to be unlikely to detect. Below is the list of all pesticides that have been tested for (n = 301), including substances not detected in any samples.

Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Azinphos methyl,  BHC alpha,  Carfentrazone ethyl,  Chlorfenopyr,  Cyhalothrin total,  Dichlorvos (DDVP),  Endosulfan I,  Endosulfan II,  DDE p,p’,  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB),  Lindane,  Fenoxaprop-ethyl,  DDT p,p',  DDD p,p',  Amitraz,  Potasan,  Imidacloprid 5-hydroxy,  Naled,  Permethrin total,  Pirimiphos methyl,  Pyrethrins,  Quintozene (PCNB),  Tetrachlorvinphos,  Tribufos (DEF),  Resmethrin total,  Prothioconazole,  Phosmet OA,  Methiocarb,  Atrazine CEAT,  Atrazine CIAT,  Benfluralin,  Ethalfluralin,  Diclofop-methyl,  DDT o,p',  4-Aminopyridine,  Mesotrione,  Metalaxyl Total,  Formetanate,  DDE p,p',  Cypermethrin total,  Cyfluthrin total,  Esfenvalerate/Fenvalerate,  Chlorpropham,  Carbendazim,  Avermectin,  Tetradiafon,  Quintozine,  Piperonyl Butoxide,  Phosmet Oa,  Parathion,  Norflurazon Desmethyl,  Mgk-264,  Flumeturon,  Ethofenprox,  cyhalothrin lambda,  Chlorthal-dimethyl,  Bentazone,  4-OH-Chlorothalonil,  3-hydroxycarbofuran,  2,4-DMPF,  1-Naphthol,  2,4 Dimethylaniline,  2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF),  2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM),  3-Hydroxycarbofuran,  4,4 Dibromobenzophenone,  4-Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Acephate,  Acetamiprid,  Acetochlor,  Acrinathrin,  Alachlor,  Aldicarb,  Aldicarb sulfone,  Aldicarb sulfoxide,  Aldrin,  Allethrin,  Amicarbazone,  Ametoctradin,  Atrazine,  Abamectin,  Azinphos-methyl,  Azoxystrobin,  Bendiocarb,  Benoxacor,  Bensulide,  Bentazon,  BHC-alpha,  BHC-beta,  BHC-delta,  BHC-gamma,  Bifenazate,  Bifenthrin,  Boscalid,  Bromacil,  Bromopropylate,  Bromuconazole,  Buprofezin,  Captan,  Carbaryl,  Carbendazim (MBC),  Carbofuran,  Carboxin,  Carfentrazone-ethyl,  Chlorantraniliprole,  Chlorfenapyr,  Chlorfenvinphos,  Chlorferone,  Etofenprox,  Chlorothalonil,  Chlorothalonil-4-OH,  Chlorpropham (CIPC),  Chlorpyrifos,  Chlorpyrifos methyl,  Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA),  Clofentezine,  Clothianidin,  Coumaphos,  Coumaphos oxon,  Cyantraniliprole,  Cyazofamid,  Cyflufenamid,  Cyflumetofen,  Cyfluthrin,  Cyhalothrin,  Cymiazole,  Cymoxanil,  Cypermethrin,  Cyphenothrin,  Cyprodinil,  Cyromazine,  DDD pp',  DDE, p,p',  DDT, p,p',  DEET,  Deltamethrin,  Diazinon,  Diazinon oxon,  Dichlorvos,  Dicloran,  Dicofol,  Dieldrin,  Difenoconazole,  Diflubenzuron,  Dimethenamid,  Dimethoate,  Dimethomorph,  Dinotefuran,  Diphenamid,  Diphenylamine,  Diuron,  Emamectin Benzoate,  Alpha-endosulfan,  Beta-endosulfan,  Endosulfan sulfate,  Endrin,  Epoxiconazole,  Esfenvalerate,  Fenvalerate,  Ethion,  Ethofumesate,  Etoxazole,  Etridiazole,  Famoxadone,  Fenamidone,  Fenarimol,  Fenazaquin,  Fenbuconazole,  Fenhexamid,  Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl,  Fenpropathrin,  Fenpyroximate,  Fenthion,  Fipronil,  Fipronil sulfide,  Fipronil sulfone,  Flonicamid,  Flubendiamide,  Fludioxonil,  Fluometuron,  Fluopicolide,  Fluopyram,  Fluoxastrobin,  Flupyradifurone,  Fluridone,  Flutolanil,  Flutriafol,  Fluvalinate,  Fluxapyroxad,  Heptachlor,  Heptachlor epoxide,  Hexachlorobenzene,  Hexazinone,  Hexythiazox,  Hydroprene,  Imazalil,  Imidacloprid,  Imidacloprid-5-hydroxy,  Imidacloprid olefin,  Indoxacarb,  Iprodione,  Isoprocarb,  Kresoxim-methyl,  Linuron,  Malathion,  Mandipropamide,  Metalaxyl,  Metconazole,  Methamidophos,  Methidathion,  Methomyl,  Pyraclostrobin,  Methoprene,  Methoxyfenozide,  Metolachlor,  Metribuzin,  MGK-264,  MGK-326,  Momfluorothrin,  Myclobutanil,  Norflurazon,  Norflurazon desmethyl,  Novaluron,  Omethoate,  Oxamyl,  Oxyfluorfen,  Paradichlorobenzene,  Parathion ethyl,  Parathion methyl,  Penconazole,  Pendimethalin,  Penthiopyrad,  Permethrin,  Cispermethrin,  Transpermethrin,  Phenothrin,  Phorate,  Phosalone,  Phosmet,  Phosmet oxon,  Picoxystrobin,  Piperonyl butoxide,  Pirimiphos-methyl,  Prallethrin,  Prodiamine,  Profenofos,  Prometon,  Prometryn,  Pronamide,  Propachlor,  Propamocarb hydrochloride,  Propanil,  Propargite,  Propazine,  Propetamphos,  Propham,  Propiconazole,  Pymetrozine,  Pyrethrins (cinerin I),  Pyridaben,  Pyrimethanil,  Pyriproxyfen,  Quinoxyfen,  Quintozene,  Resmethrin,  Resmethrin, cis,  Resmethrin, trans,  Sethoxydim,  Simazine,  Spinetoram,  Spinosad,  Spinosyn A,  Spinosyn D,  Spirodiclofen,  Spiromesifen,  Spirotetramat,  Sulfoxaflor,  Tebuconazole,  Tebufenozide,  Tebuthiuron,  Tefluthrin,  Tetrachlorvinphos (Dietreen T),  Tetraconazole,  Tetradifon,  Tetramethrin,  Thiabendazole,  Thiacloprid,  Thiamethoxam,  THPI,  Thymol,  Tolfenpyrad,  Triadimefon,  Triadimenol,  Triazophos,  Tribufos,  Trifloxystrobin,  Triflumizole,  Trifluralin,  Triticonazole,  Vinclozolin, 

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