National Honey Bee Survey Wax Pesticide Sampling Report

Further sampling summary information can be found at the USDA APHIS National Honey Bee Survey Report page. This report lists the level of detection (LOD) and the prevalence (percentage that the pesticide occurred) in all samples taken across the country as part of wax sampling since 2017. For example, if the prevalence value for a pesticide is given as “10”, the pesticide was detected in 10% of all samples received. Finally, this table also provides the average and the range in ppb (parts per billion) of pesticides found in all of the samples.

Pesticide samples were collected from brood comb wax and processed at the USDA Agriculture Marketing Service (USDA-AMS). Sampling from bee bread was done from 2011 to 2017. From 2017 to present, the pesticide sampling protocol uses wax. Access the bee bread sampling report here.

United States Department of Agriculture


The Bee Informed Partnership
at beeinformed.org
funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Apiary Inspectors of America



Table: Prevalence of Pesticides found in all samples (n=780) analyzed for the National Honey Bee disease survey.

Pesticide Detected LOD (ppb) # Samples Prevalence (%) Average Level (ppb) Level Range
1-Naphthol 50.0-500.0 760 0.1 430.0 430.0
2,4-DMPF 1.5-25.0 780 70.3 3207.6 Trace - 258000.0
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) 2.0-5.0 768 1.7 29.4 Trace - 179.0
4-Hydroxychlorothalonil 2.0-10.0 365 0.5 22.0 19.0 - 25.0
4-OH-Chlorothalonil 2.0-5.0 415 0.2 Trace Trace*
Acephate 20.0-250.0 760 0.1 51.0 51.0
Acetamiprid 2.5-8.0 780 2.8 10.3 Trace - 19.0
Acetochlor 15.0-100.0 780 19.4 264.3 Trace - 740.0
Alachlor 15.0-200.0 780 1.4 151.2 Trace - 240.0
Aldrin 30.0 12 8.3 99.0 99.0
Ametoctradin 1.0-3.0 768 3.6 11.4 Trace - 70.0
Atrazine 1.2-4.0 780 25.6 17.4 Trace - 214.0
Azinphos-methyl 250.0 353 1.7 1576.0 Trace - 2670.0
Azoxystrobin 0.8-5.0 780 51.9 32.4 Trace - 1070.0
Bensulide 2.0-5.0 748 0.1 Trace Trace*
Bifenazate 1.6-15.0 329 3.0 15.2 Trace - 31.0
Bifenthrin 10.0-25.0 735 1.6 132.9 Trace - 315.0
Boscalid 2.0-10.0 780 19.7 26.0 Trace - 232.0
Bromacil 4.0-20.0 780 0.9 14.5 Trace - 17.0
Buprofezin 0.8-60.0 780 11.8 24.6 Trace - 543.0
Captan 50.0-250.0 763 1.4 455.2 Trace - 1000.0
Carbaryl 2.0-5.0 730 5.5 62.1 Trace - 452.0
Carbendazim 2.0-25.0 768 50.7 103.6 Trace - 2510.0
Carbendazim (MBC) 5.0 12 83.3 39.5 Trace - 130.0
Carbofuran 0.8-10.0 780 0.4 3.3 2.0 - 4.0
Chlorantraniliprole 5.2-15.0 780 11.4 31.7 Trace - 130.0
Chlorfenapyr 250.0 353 0.3 Trace Trace*
Chlorfenopyr 5.0-13.0 427 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Chlorothalonil 10.0-250.0 780 35.0 2056.6 Trace - 57400.0
Chlorpropham 6.0-15.0 768 0.1 Trace Trace*
Chlorpyrifos 5.0 780 29.6 20.3 Trace - 273.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl 3.0 415 12.3 8.6 Trace - 30.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA) 2.0 353 12.2 6.0 Trace - 20.0
Coumaphos 2.0-5.0 780 87.3 208.7 Trace - 9310.0
Coumaphos oxon 0.4-2.0 780 56.5 19.3 Trace - 1050.0
Cyantraniliprole 5.2-25.0 780 0.3 44.0 Trace - 44.0
Cyazofamid 0.8-30.0 780 0.1 8.0 8.0
Cymoxanil 1.6-4.0 768 0.1 Trace Trace*
Cypermethrin 10.0-25.0 775 0.6 Trace Trace - Trace
Cyprodinil 1.2-10.0 757 35.8 73.9 Trace - 3780.0
Cyromazine 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
DDE p,p' 3.0-5.0 420 19.0 7.0 Trace - 9.0
DDE, p,p' 2.0 293 13.3 17.0 Trace - 18.0
DEET 3.0-13.0 768 31.5 121.2 Trace - 3850.0
Dichlorvos 2.0-5.0 415 0.2 8.0 8.0
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 3.0-15.0 365 0.3 4.0 4.0
Dicloran 5.0-25.0 780 2.3 25.7 Trace - 27.0
Dicofol 5.0-250.0 720 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Difenoconazole 1.6-10.0 780 15.5 16.3 Trace - 129.0
Diflubenzuron 1.2-5.0 780 13.2 101.4 Trace - 7240.0
Dimethenamid 1.6-10.0 775 1.3 5.7 Trace - 6.0
Dimethoate 2.0-15.0 780 1.4 26.6 Trace - 101.0
Diphenylamine 2.0-3.0 768 12.8 5.9 Trace - 16.0
Diuron 1.0-6.0 704 35.5 14.0 Trace - 208.0
Endosulfan II 10.0-25.0 780 0.6 Trace Trace - Trace
Endosulfan sulfate 10.0-25.0 763 0.1 Trace Trace*
Esfenvalerate 5.0-13.0 427 0.9 22.0 Trace - 22.0
Ethofenprox 125.0 415 6.0 Trace Trace - Trace
Etofenprox 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 81.0 81.0
Etoxazole 0.4-5.0 780 0.6 3.3 Trace - 4.0
Famoxadone 3.2-25.0 780 0.4 18.0 Trace - 25.0
Fenamidone 1.0-30.0 780 2.6 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Fenazaquin 0.4-5.0 780 0.1 2.0 2.0
Fenbuconazole 1.2-15.0 780 14.1 37.2 Trace - 705.0
Fenhexamid 3.6-30.0 780 0.4 317.7 79.0 - 770.0
Fenpropathrin 10.0-25.0 780 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fenpyroximate 1.2-4.0 780 47.1 70.1 Trace - 4740.0
Fipronil 25.0-50.0 780 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfide 5.0 780 0.4 Trace Trace - Trace
Fipronil sulfone 5.0-25.0 780 0.1 Trace Trace*
Flonicamid 7.0-38.0 780 0.6 74.0 Trace - 118.0
Fludioxonil 10.0-60.0 780 9.1 256.3 Trace - 5850.0
Flumeturon 0.8-2.0 415 19.0 7.4 Trace - 81.0
Fluometuron 1.0-40.0 358 0.3 Trace Trace*
Fluopicolide 1.2-3.0 768 1.4 7.1 Trace - 16.0
Fluopyram 0.8-5.0 780 25.8 25.6 Trace - 503.0
Fluoxastrobin 0.8-5.0 780 0.4 6.5 Trace - 10.0
Flupyradifurone 2.0-25.0 780 2.6 62.9 Trace - 403.0
Fluridone 0.4-5.0 780 0.1 1.0 1.0
Flutriafol 2.0-10.0 768 0.1 18.0 18.0
Fluvalinate 5.0-50.0 780 70.4 823.7 Trace - 76800.0
Fluxapyroxad 0.8-2.0 768 16.3 9.6 Trace - 158.0
Hexazinone 0.4-10.0 780 0.5 2.0 Trace - 3.0
Hexythiazox 0.4-15.0 780 21.0 3.4 Trace - 26.0
Imazalil 4.0-20.0 760 0.1 46.0 46.0
Imidacloprid 2.0-6.0 780 0.9 14.5 Trace - 24.0
Indoxacarb 2.0-30.0 780 2.6 13.1 Trace - 32.0
Iprodione 50.0-100.0 780 32.9 297.1 Trace - 3370.0
Kresoxim-methyl 1.2-10.0 780 0.5 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Linuron 5.2-15.0 780 0.4 Trace Trace - Trace
MGK-264 7.0-25.0 365 2.7 26.4 Trace - 52.0
Malathion 10.0-25.0 780 1.5 337.7 Trace - 939.0
Mandipropamide 0.8-10.0 780 3.1 6.9 Trace - 28.0
Metalaxyl 0.8-5.0 775 4.1 8.3 Trace - 29.0
Metalaxyl Total 5.0 5 20.0 Trace Trace*
Metconazole 2.0-10.0 780 3.2 41.5 Trace - 159.0
Methomyl 2.0-25.0 760 0.1 8.0 8.0
Methoprene 80.0-5000.0 775 2.5 4975.7 Trace - 6300.0
Methoxyfenozide 0.8-5.0 780 23.5 33.1 Trace - 1020.0
Metolachlor 5.0-25.0 780 40.6 77.3 Trace - 521.0
Metribuzin 5.0-25.0 780 0.6 Trace Trace - Trace
Mgk-264 4.0-20.0 415 2.2 1274.5 Trace - 2450.0
Momfluorothrin 25.0 768 0.1 28.0 28.0
Myclobutanil 3.2-15.0 780 0.5 86.0 Trace - 129.0
Norflurazon 2.0-15.0 780 0.9 27.0 Trace - 27.0
Norflurazon Desmethyl 2.0-5.0 415 0.5 11.0 Trace - 11.0
Norflurazon desmethyl 5.0-25.0 365 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Novaluron 2.0-30.0 780 4.2 13.3 Trace - 54.0
Omethoate 12.0-100.0 757 0.9 1220.3 210.0 - 3350.0
Oxamyl 4.0-20.0 780 0.1 Trace Trace*
Oxyfluorfen 5.0-100.0 780 3.7 54.7 Trace - 388.0
Pendimethalin 15.0-50.0 780 6.5 52.0 Trace - 234.0
Penthiopyrad 0.8-2.0 757 24.2 13.9 Trace - 203.0
Permethrin 25.0-100.0 728 1.4 1598.0 Trace - 3360.0
Phenothrin 30.0-100.0 780 0.5 641.8 497.0 - 941.0
Phosmet 50.0-100.0 780 0.5 226.0 Trace - 388.0
Picoxystrobin 0.8-3.0 768 0.5 22.0 Trace - 56.0
Piperonyl Butoxide 1.2-6.0 415 62.9 54.4 Trace - 3290.0
Piperonyl butoxide 12.0-15.0 365 57.3 210.7 Trace - 2620.0
Prallethrin 13.0-250.0 763 1.2 109.4 17.0 - 415.0
Prodiamine 8.0-100.0 780 0.3 40.5 21.0 - 60.0
Prometon 1.0-3.0 768 5.7 18.6 Trace - 293.0
Prometryn 1.2-4.0 768 0.4 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Propamocarb hydrochloride 2.0 353 6.2 15.4 Trace - 127.0
Propanil 2.0-10.0 780 1.7 24.7 Trace - 64.0
Propargite 1.2-15.0 780 42.3 54.7 Trace - 2710.0
Propiconazole 2.0-15.0 780 22.6 40.7 Trace - 1050.0
Pyraclostrobin 1.2-5.0 780 39.5 23.1 Trace - 415.0
Pyridaben 1.2-5.0 780 3.6 17.5 Trace - 96.0
Pyrimethanil 2.0-15.0 780 16.8 39.2 Trace - 1080.0
Pyriproxyfen 1.0-5.0 780 3.8 7.6 Trace - 30.0
Quinoxyfen 0.8-15.0 780 1.9 5.7 Trace - 15.0
Quintozine 5.0 415 0.2 Trace Trace*
Sethoxydim 1.2-10.0 780 0.1 5.0 5.0
Simazine 8.0-50.0 780 0.1 59.0 59.0
Spinetoram 15.0-100.0 320 4.1 16.0 Trace - 16.0
Spinosad 7.0-15.0 320 6.9 22.8 Trace - 40.0
Spirodiclofen 1.6-5.0 780 7.2 7.0 Trace - 17.0
Spiromesifen 15.2-50.0 755 0.1 42.0 42.0
Spirotetramat 1.2-30.0 780 0.8 4.5 Trace - 5.0
Sulfoxaflor 4.0-25.0 780 0.1 Trace Trace*
THPI 15.0-125.0 780 0.4 816.7 270.0 - 1880.0
Tebuconazole 5.0-25.0 780 15.0 45.5 Trace - 201.0
Tebufenozide 0.4-5.0 780 5.6 20.8 Trace - 196.0
Tetramethrin 30.0-125.0 780 0.8 10891.8 901.0 - 30600.0
Thiabendazole 2.0-5.0 780 0.9 32.0 Trace - 38.0
Thiacloprid 1.2-5.0 780 0.5 15.0 Trace - 15.0
Thymol 2.0-50.0 780 76.3 11852.6 Trace - 1440000.0
Tribufos 13.0-100.0 768 0.3 38.5 31.0 - 46.0
Trifloxystrobin 0.4-10.0 780 36.5 13.2 Trace - 257.0
Triflumizole 0.8-40.0 730 3.3 5.5 1.0 - 24.0
Trifluralin 5.0-13.0 780 3.7 20.5 Trace - 27.0
cyhalothrin lambda 25.0-50.0 415 1.2 Trace Trace - Trace

*Only a single detection made for this pesticide.

USDA-AMS tests for a broad spectrum of pesticides deemed possible to discover in honey bee colonies. The list of pesticides changes over time as new pesticides are introduced to market, and others are deemed to be unlikely to detect. Below is the list of all pesticides that have been tested for (n = 301), including substances not detected in any samples.

Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Azinphos methyl,  BHC alpha,  Carfentrazone ethyl,  Chlorfenopyr,  Cyhalothrin total,  Dichlorvos (DDVP),  Endosulfan I,  Endosulfan II,  DDE p,p’,  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB),  Lindane,  Fenoxaprop-ethyl,  DDT p,p',  DDD p,p',  Amitraz,  Potasan,  Imidacloprid 5-hydroxy,  Naled,  Permethrin total,  Pirimiphos methyl,  Pyrethrins,  Quintozene (PCNB),  Tetrachlorvinphos,  Tribufos (DEF),  Resmethrin total,  Prothioconazole,  Phosmet OA,  Methiocarb,  Atrazine CEAT,  Atrazine CIAT,  Benfluralin,  Ethalfluralin,  Diclofop-methyl,  DDT o,p',  4-Aminopyridine,  Mesotrione,  Metalaxyl Total,  Formetanate,  DDE p,p',  Cypermethrin total,  Cyfluthrin total,  Esfenvalerate/Fenvalerate,  Chlorpropham,  Carbendazim,  Avermectin,  Tetradiafon,  Quintozine,  Piperonyl Butoxide,  Phosmet Oa,  Parathion,  Norflurazon Desmethyl,  Mgk-264,  Flumeturon,  Ethofenprox,  cyhalothrin lambda,  Chlorthal-dimethyl,  Bentazone,  4-OH-Chlorothalonil,  3-hydroxycarbofuran,  2,4-DMPF,  1-Naphthol,  2,4 Dimethylaniline,  2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF),  2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM),  3-Hydroxycarbofuran,  4,4 Dibromobenzophenone,  4-Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Acephate,  Acetamiprid,  Acetochlor,  Acrinathrin,  Alachlor,  Aldicarb,  Aldicarb sulfone,  Aldicarb sulfoxide,  Aldrin,  Allethrin,  Amicarbazone,  Ametoctradin,  Atrazine,  Abamectin,  Azinphos-methyl,  Azoxystrobin,  Bendiocarb,  Benoxacor,  Bensulide,  Bentazon,  BHC-alpha,  BHC-beta,  BHC-delta,  BHC-gamma,  Bifenazate,  Bifenthrin,  Boscalid,  Bromacil,  Bromopropylate,  Bromuconazole,  Buprofezin,  Captan,  Carbaryl,  Carbendazim (MBC),  Carbofuran,  Carboxin,  Carfentrazone-ethyl,  Chlorantraniliprole,  Chlorfenapyr,  Chlorfenvinphos,  Chlorferone,  Etofenprox,  Chlorothalonil,  Chlorothalonil-4-OH,  Chlorpropham (CIPC),  Chlorpyrifos,  Chlorpyrifos methyl,  Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA),  Clofentezine,  Clothianidin,  Coumaphos,  Coumaphos oxon,  Cyantraniliprole,  Cyazofamid,  Cyflufenamid,  Cyflumetofen,  Cyfluthrin,  Cyhalothrin,  Cymiazole,  Cymoxanil,  Cypermethrin,  Cyphenothrin,  Cyprodinil,  Cyromazine,  DDD pp',  DDE, p,p',  DDT, p,p',  DEET,  Deltamethrin,  Diazinon,  Diazinon oxon,  Dichlorvos,  Dicloran,  Dicofol,  Dieldrin,  Difenoconazole,  Diflubenzuron,  Dimethenamid,  Dimethoate,  Dimethomorph,  Dinotefuran,  Diphenamid,  Diphenylamine,  Diuron,  Emamectin Benzoate,  Alpha-endosulfan,  Beta-endosulfan,  Endosulfan sulfate,  Endrin,  Epoxiconazole,  Esfenvalerate,  Fenvalerate,  Ethion,  Ethofumesate,  Etoxazole,  Etridiazole,  Famoxadone,  Fenamidone,  Fenarimol,  Fenazaquin,  Fenbuconazole,  Fenhexamid,  Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl,  Fenpropathrin,  Fenpyroximate,  Fenthion,  Fipronil,  Fipronil sulfide,  Fipronil sulfone,  Flonicamid,  Flubendiamide,  Fludioxonil,  Fluometuron,  Fluopicolide,  Fluopyram,  Fluoxastrobin,  Flupyradifurone,  Fluridone,  Flutolanil,  Flutriafol,  Fluvalinate,  Fluxapyroxad,  Heptachlor,  Heptachlor epoxide,  Hexachlorobenzene,  Hexazinone,  Hexythiazox,  Hydroprene,  Imazalil,  Imidacloprid,  Imidacloprid-5-hydroxy,  Imidacloprid olefin,  Indoxacarb,  Iprodione,  Isoprocarb,  Kresoxim-methyl,  Linuron,  Malathion,  Mandipropamide,  Metalaxyl,  Metconazole,  Methamidophos,  Methidathion,  Methomyl,  Pyraclostrobin,  Methoprene,  Methoxyfenozide,  Metolachlor,  Metribuzin,  MGK-264,  MGK-326,  Momfluorothrin,  Myclobutanil,  Norflurazon,  Norflurazon desmethyl,  Novaluron,  Omethoate,  Oxamyl,  Oxyfluorfen,  Paradichlorobenzene,  Parathion ethyl,  Parathion methyl,  Penconazole,  Pendimethalin,  Penthiopyrad,  Permethrin,  Cispermethrin,  Transpermethrin,  Phenothrin,  Phorate,  Phosalone,  Phosmet,  Phosmet oxon,  Picoxystrobin,  Piperonyl butoxide,  Pirimiphos-methyl,  Prallethrin,  Prodiamine,  Profenofos,  Prometon,  Prometryn,  Pronamide,  Propachlor,  Propamocarb hydrochloride,  Propanil,  Propargite,  Propazine,  Propetamphos,  Propham,  Propiconazole,  Pymetrozine,  Pyrethrins (cinerin I),  Pyridaben,  Pyrimethanil,  Pyriproxyfen,  Quinoxyfen,  Quintozene,  Resmethrin,  Resmethrin, cis,  Resmethrin, trans,  Sethoxydim,  Simazine,  Spinetoram,  Spinosad,  Spinosyn A,  Spinosyn D,  Spirodiclofen,  Spiromesifen,  Spirotetramat,  Sulfoxaflor,  Tebuconazole,  Tebufenozide,  Tebuthiuron,  Tefluthrin,  Tetrachlorvinphos (Dietreen T),  Tetraconazole,  Tetradifon,  Tetramethrin,  Thiabendazole,  Thiacloprid,  Thiamethoxam,  THPI,  Thymol,  Tolfenpyrad,  Triadimefon,  Triadimenol,  Triazophos,  Tribufos,  Trifloxystrobin,  Triflumizole,  Trifluralin,  Triticonazole,  Vinclozolin, 

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