National Honey Bee Survey Wax Pesticide Sampling Report

Further sampling summary information can be found at the USDA APHIS National Honey Bee Survey Report page. This report lists the level of detection (LOD) and the prevalence (percentage that the pesticide occurred) in all samples taken across the country as part of wax sampling since 2017. For example, if the prevalence value for a pesticide is given as “10”, the pesticide was detected in 10% of all samples received. Finally, this table also provides the average and the range in ppb (parts per billion) of pesticides found in all of the samples.

Pesticide samples were collected from brood comb wax and processed at the USDA Agriculture Marketing Service (USDA-AMS). Sampling from bee bread was done from 2011 to 2017. From 2017 to present, the pesticide sampling protocol uses wax. Access the bee bread sampling report here.

United States Department of Agriculture

The Bee Informed Partnership
at beeinformed.org
funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture


Table: Prevalence of Pesticides found in all samples (n=732) analyzed for the National Honey Bee disease survey.

Pesticide Detected LOD (ppb) # Samples Prevalence (%) Average Level (ppb) Level Range
1-Naphthol 50.0-500.0 732 0.1 430.0 430.0
2,4-DMPF 1.5-25.0 732 70.9 3096.1 Trace - 258000.0
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) 2.0-5.0 720 1.9 27.0 Trace - 179.0
4-Hydroxychlorothalonil 2.0-10.0 365 0.5 22.0 19.0 - 25.0
4-OH-Chlorothalonil 2.0-5.0 367 0.3 Trace Trace*
Acephate 20.0-250.0 732 0.1 51.0 51.0
Acetamiprid 2.5-8.0 732 2.9 10.3 Trace - 19.0
Acetochlor 15.0-100.0 732 20.4 264.3 Trace - 740.0
Alachlor 15.0-200.0 732 1.5 151.2 Trace - 240.0
Aldrin 30.0 12 8.3 99.0 99.0
Ametoctradin 1.0-3.0 720 4.0 11.4 Trace - 70.0
Atrazine 1.2-4.0 732 26.4 17.7 Trace - 214.0
Azinphos-methyl 250.0 353 1.7 1576.0 Trace - 2670.0
Azoxystrobin 0.8-5.0 732 52.5 34.0 Trace - 1070.0
Bensulide 2.0-5.0 720 0.1 Trace Trace*
Bifenazate 1.6-15.0 732 1.4 15.2 Trace - 31.0
Bifenthrin 10.0-25.0 732 1.6 132.9 Trace - 315.0
Boscalid 2.0-10.0 732 21.0 26.6 Trace - 232.0
Bromacil 4.0-20.0 732 1.0 14.5 Trace - 17.0
Buprofezin 0.8-60.0 732 12.6 24.5 Trace - 543.0
Captan 50.0-250.0 732 1.6 467.2 Trace - 1000.0
Carbaryl 2.0-5.0 732 5.5 62.1 Trace - 452.0
Carbendazim 2.0-25.0 720 50.4 104.5 Trace - 2510.0
Carbendazim (MBC) 5.0 12 83.3 39.5 Trace - 130.0
Carbofuran 0.8-10.0 732 0.4 3.3 2.0 - 4.0
Chlorantraniliprole 5.2-15.0 732 11.5 32.2 Trace - 130.0
Chlorfenapyr 250.0 353 0.3 Trace Trace*
Chlorfenopyr 5.0-13.0 379 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Chlorothalonil 10.0-250.0 732 36.6 2072.3 Trace - 57400.0
Chlorpropham 6.0-15.0 720 0.1 Trace Trace*
Chlorpyrifos 5.0 732 29.9 20.6 Trace - 273.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl 3.0 367 13.9 8.6 Trace - 30.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA) 2.0 353 12.2 6.0 Trace - 20.0
Coumaphos 2.0-5.0 732 88.3 214.5 Trace - 9310.0
Coumaphos oxon 0.4-2.0 732 58.7 19.5 Trace - 1050.0
Cyantraniliprole 5.2-25.0 732 0.3 44.0 Trace - 44.0
Cyazofamid 0.8-30.0 732 0.1 8.0 8.0
Cymoxanil 1.6-4.0 720 0.1 Trace Trace*
Cypermethrin 10.0-25.0 727 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Cyprodinil 1.2-10.0 732 35.1 75.9 Trace - 3780.0
Cyromazine 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
DDE p,p' 3.0-5.0 372 20.2 7.0 Trace - 9.0
DDE, p,p' 2.0 353 11.0 17.0 Trace - 18.0
DEET 3.0-13.0 720 32.5 125.2 Trace - 3850.0
Dichlorvos 2.0-5.0 367 0.3 8.0 8.0
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 3.0-15.0 365 0.3 4.0 4.0
Dicloran 5.0-25.0 732 2.5 25.7 Trace - 27.0
Dicofol 5.0-250.0 732 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Difenoconazole 1.6-10.0 732 16.0 16.7 Trace - 129.0
Diflubenzuron 1.2-5.0 732 13.5 105.1 Trace - 7240.0
Dimethenamid 1.6-10.0 732 1.4 5.7 Trace - 6.0
Dimethoate 2.0-15.0 732 1.5 26.6 Trace - 101.0
Diphenylamine 2.0-3.0 720 13.6 5.9 Trace - 16.0
Diuron 1.0-6.0 732 33.9 14.0 Trace - 208.0
Endosulfan II 10.0-25.0 732 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Endosulfan sulfate 10.0-25.0 732 0.1 Trace Trace*
Esfenvalerate 5.0-13.0 379 1.1 22.0 Trace - 22.0
Ethofenprox 125.0 367 6.8 Trace Trace - Trace
Etofenprox 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 81.0 81.0
Etoxazole 0.4-5.0 732 0.7 3.3 Trace - 4.0
Famoxadone 3.2-25.0 732 0.4 18.0 Trace - 25.0
Fenamidone 1.0-30.0 732 2.7 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Fenazaquin 0.4-5.0 732 0.1 2.0 2.0
Fenbuconazole 1.2-15.0 732 14.3 38.6 Trace - 705.0
Fenhexamid 3.6-30.0 732 0.4 317.7 79.0 - 770.0
Fenpropathrin 10.0-25.0 732 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fenpyroximate 1.2-4.0 732 48.5 72.9 Trace - 4740.0
Fipronil 25.0-50.0 732 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfide 5.0 732 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfone 5.0-25.0 732 0.1 Trace Trace*
Flonicamid 7.0-38.0 732 0.7 74.0 Trace - 118.0
Fludioxonil 10.0-60.0 732 9.4 273.3 Trace - 5850.0
Flumeturon 0.8-2.0 367 21.5 7.4 Trace - 81.0
Fluometuron 1.0-40.0 358 0.3 Trace Trace*
Fluopicolide 1.2-3.0 720 1.5 7.1 Trace - 16.0
Fluopyram 0.8-5.0 732 26.2 26.7 Trace - 503.0
Fluoxastrobin 0.8-5.0 732 0.4 6.5 Trace - 10.0
Flupyradifurone 2.0-25.0 732 2.7 62.9 Trace - 403.0
Fluridone 0.4-5.0 732 0.1 1.0 1.0
Flutriafol 2.0-10.0 720 0.1 18.0 18.0
Fluvalinate 5.0-50.0 732 71.6 851.2 Trace - 76800.0
Fluxapyroxad 0.8-2.0 720 16.5 9.6 Trace - 158.0
Hexazinone 0.4-10.0 732 0.5 2.0 Trace - 3.0
Hexythiazox 0.4-15.0 732 21.9 3.5 Trace - 26.0
Imazalil 4.0-20.0 732 0.1 46.0 46.0
Imidacloprid 2.0-6.0 732 1.0 14.5 Trace - 24.0
Indoxacarb 2.0-30.0 732 2.7 13.1 Trace - 32.0
Iprodione 50.0-100.0 732 33.6 303.8 Trace - 3370.0
Kresoxim-methyl 1.2-10.0 732 0.5 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Linuron 5.2-15.0 732 0.4 Trace Trace - Trace
MGK-264 7.0-25.0 365 2.7 26.4 Trace - 52.0
Malathion 10.0-25.0 732 1.6 337.7 Trace - 939.0
Mandipropamide 0.8-10.0 732 3.1 6.9 Trace - 28.0
Metalaxyl 0.8-5.0 727 4.5 8.0 Trace - 29.0
Metalaxyl Total 5.0 5 20.0 Trace Trace*
Metconazole 2.0-10.0 732 3.4 41.5 Trace - 159.0
Methomyl 2.0-25.0 732 0.1 8.0 8.0
Methoprene 80.0-5000.0 732 2.6 4975.7 Trace - 6300.0
Methoxyfenozide 0.8-5.0 732 24.0 30.1 Trace - 1020.0
Metolachlor 5.0-25.0 732 41.0 77.3 Trace - 521.0
Metribuzin 5.0-25.0 732 0.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Mgk-264 4.0-20.0 367 2.5 1274.5 Trace - 2450.0
Momfluorothrin 25.0 720 0.1 28.0 28.0
Myclobutanil 3.2-15.0 732 0.5 86.0 Trace - 129.0
Norflurazon 2.0-15.0 732 1.0 27.0 Trace - 27.0
Norflurazon Desmethyl 2.0-5.0 367 0.5 11.0 Trace - 11.0
Norflurazon desmethyl 5.0-25.0 365 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Novaluron 2.0-30.0 732 4.4 13.3 Trace - 54.0
Omethoate 12.0-100.0 732 1.0 1220.3 210.0 - 3350.0
Oxamyl 4.0-20.0 732 0.1 Trace Trace*
Oxyfluorfen 5.0-100.0 732 3.0 64.9 Trace - 388.0
Pendimethalin 15.0-50.0 732 7.0 52.0 Trace - 234.0
Penthiopyrad 0.8-2.0 720 23.6 13.7 Trace - 203.0
Permethrin 25.0-100.0 720 1.4 1598.0 Trace - 3360.0
Phenothrin 30.0-100.0 732 0.5 641.8 497.0 - 941.0
Phosmet 50.0-100.0 732 0.5 226.0 Trace - 388.0
Picoxystrobin 0.8-3.0 720 0.6 22.0 Trace - 56.0
Piperonyl Butoxide 1.2-6.0 367 68.4 56.5 Trace - 3290.0
Piperonyl butoxide 12.0-15.0 365 57.3 210.7 Trace - 2620.0
Prallethrin 13.0-250.0 732 1.2 109.4 17.0 - 415.0
Prodiamine 8.0-100.0 732 0.3 40.5 21.0 - 60.0
Prometon 1.0-3.0 720 6.1 18.6 Trace - 293.0
Prometryn 1.2-4.0 720 0.4 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Propamocarb hydrochloride 2.0 353 6.2 15.4 Trace - 127.0
Propanil 2.0-10.0 732 1.2 29.4 Trace - 64.0
Propargite 1.2-15.0 732 43.6 56.6 Trace - 2710.0
Propiconazole 2.0-15.0 732 22.8 42.5 Trace - 1050.0
Pyraclostrobin 1.2-5.0 732 40.8 23.8 Trace - 415.0
Pyridaben 1.2-5.0 732 4.0 19.1 Trace - 96.0
Pyrimethanil 2.0-15.0 732 17.2 40.9 Trace - 1080.0
Pyriproxyfen 1.0-5.0 732 4.1 7.6 Trace - 30.0
Quinoxyfen 0.8-15.0 732 2.0 5.7 Trace - 15.0
Quintozine 5.0 367 0.3 Trace Trace*
Simazine 8.0-50.0 732 0.1 59.0 59.0
Spinetoram 15.0-100.0 365 3.6 16.0 Trace - 16.0
Spinosad 7.0-15.0 365 6.0 22.8 Trace - 40.0
Spirodiclofen 1.6-5.0 732 7.7 7.0 Trace - 17.0
Spiromesifen 15.2-50.0 732 0.1 42.0 42.0
Spirotetramat 1.2-30.0 732 0.8 4.5 Trace - 5.0
Sulfoxaflor 4.0-25.0 732 0.1 Trace Trace*
THPI 15.0-125.0 732 0.4 816.7 270.0 - 1880.0
Tebuconazole 5.0-25.0 732 15.7 45.5 Trace - 201.0
Tebufenozide 0.4-5.0 732 6.0 20.8 Trace - 196.0
Tetramethrin 30.0-125.0 732 0.8 10891.8 901.0 - 30600.0
Thiabendazole 2.0-5.0 732 1.0 32.0 Trace - 38.0
Thiacloprid 1.2-5.0 732 0.5 15.0 Trace - 15.0
Thymol 2.0-50.0 732 74.9 12247.2 Trace - 1440000.0
Tribufos 13.0-100.0 720 0.1 31.0 31.0
Trifloxystrobin 0.4-10.0 732 38.1 13.2 Trace - 257.0
Triflumizole 0.8-40.0 732 3.3 5.5 1.0 - 24.0
Trifluralin 5.0-13.0 732 3.8 21.7 Trace - 27.0
cyhalothrin lambda 25.0-50.0 367 1.4 Trace Trace - Trace

*Only a single detection made for this pesticide.

USDA-AMS tests for a broad spectrum of pesticides deemed possible to discover in honey bee colonies. The list of pesticides changes over time as new pesticides are introduced to market, and others are deemed to be unlikely to detect. Below is the list of all pesticides that have been tested for (n = 301), including substances not detected in any samples.

Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Azinphos methyl,  BHC alpha,  Carfentrazone ethyl,  Chlorfenopyr,  Cyhalothrin total,  Dichlorvos (DDVP),  Endosulfan I,  Endosulfan II,  DDE p,p’,  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB),  Lindane,  Fenoxaprop-ethyl,  DDT p,p',  DDD p,p',  Amitraz,  Potasan,  Imidacloprid 5-hydroxy,  Naled,  Permethrin total,  Pirimiphos methyl,  Pyrethrins,  Quintozene (PCNB),  Tetrachlorvinphos,  Tribufos (DEF),  Resmethrin total,  Prothioconazole,  Phosmet OA,  Methiocarb,  Atrazine CEAT,  Atrazine CIAT,  Benfluralin,  Ethalfluralin,  Diclofop-methyl,  DDT o,p',  4-Aminopyridine,  Mesotrione,  Metalaxyl Total,  Formetanate,  DDE p,p',  Cypermethrin total,  Cyfluthrin total,  Esfenvalerate/Fenvalerate,  Chlorpropham,  Carbendazim,  Avermectin,  Tetradiafon,  Quintozine,  Piperonyl Butoxide,  Phosmet Oa,  Parathion,  Norflurazon Desmethyl,  Mgk-264,  Flumeturon,  Ethofenprox,  cyhalothrin lambda,  Chlorthal-dimethyl,  Bentazone,  4-OH-Chlorothalonil,  3-hydroxycarbofuran,  2,4-DMPF,  1-Naphthol,  2,4 Dimethylaniline,  2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF),  2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM),  3-Hydroxycarbofuran,  4,4 Dibromobenzophenone,  4-Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Acephate,  Acetamiprid,  Acetochlor,  Acrinathrin,  Alachlor,  Aldicarb,  Aldicarb sulfone,  Aldicarb sulfoxide,  Aldrin,  Allethrin,  Amicarbazone,  Ametoctradin,  Atrazine,  Abamectin,  Azinphos-methyl,  Azoxystrobin,  Bendiocarb,  Benoxacor,  Bensulide,  Bentazon,  BHC-alpha,  BHC-beta,  BHC-delta,  BHC-gamma,  Bifenazate,  Bifenthrin,  Boscalid,  Bromacil,  Bromopropylate,  Bromuconazole,  Buprofezin,  Captan,  Carbaryl,  Carbendazim (MBC),  Carbofuran,  Carboxin,  Carfentrazone-ethyl,  Chlorantraniliprole,  Chlorfenapyr,  Chlorfenvinphos,  Chlorferone,  Etofenprox,  Chlorothalonil,  Chlorothalonil-4-OH,  Chlorpropham (CIPC),  Chlorpyrifos,  Chlorpyrifos methyl,  Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA),  Clofentezine,  Clothianidin,  Coumaphos,  Coumaphos oxon,  Cyantraniliprole,  Cyazofamid,  Cyflufenamid,  Cyflumetofen,  Cyfluthrin,  Cyhalothrin,  Cymiazole,  Cymoxanil,  Cypermethrin,  Cyphenothrin,  Cyprodinil,  Cyromazine,  DDD pp',  DDE, p,p',  DDT, p,p',  DEET,  Deltamethrin,  Diazinon,  Diazinon oxon,  Dichlorvos,  Dicloran,  Dicofol,  Dieldrin,  Difenoconazole,  Diflubenzuron,  Dimethenamid,  Dimethoate,  Dimethomorph,  Dinotefuran,  Diphenamid,  Diphenylamine,  Diuron,  Emamectin Benzoate,  Alpha-endosulfan,  Beta-endosulfan,  Endosulfan sulfate,  Endrin,  Epoxiconazole,  Esfenvalerate,  Fenvalerate,  Ethion,  Ethofumesate,  Etoxazole,  Etridiazole,  Famoxadone,  Fenamidone,  Fenarimol,  Fenazaquin,  Fenbuconazole,  Fenhexamid,  Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl,  Fenpropathrin,  Fenpyroximate,  Fenthion,  Fipronil,  Fipronil sulfide,  Fipronil sulfone,  Flonicamid,  Flubendiamide,  Fludioxonil,  Fluometuron,  Fluopicolide,  Fluopyram,  Fluoxastrobin,  Flupyradifurone,  Fluridone,  Flutolanil,  Flutriafol,  Fluvalinate,  Fluxapyroxad,  Heptachlor,  Heptachlor epoxide,  Hexachlorobenzene,  Hexazinone,  Hexythiazox,  Hydroprene,  Imazalil,  Imidacloprid,  Imidacloprid-5-hydroxy,  Imidacloprid olefin,  Indoxacarb,  Iprodione,  Isoprocarb,  Kresoxim-methyl,  Linuron,  Malathion,  Mandipropamide,  Metalaxyl,  Metconazole,  Methamidophos,  Methidathion,  Methomyl,  Pyraclostrobin,  Methoprene,  Methoxyfenozide,  Metolachlor,  Metribuzin,  MGK-264,  MGK-326,  Momfluorothrin,  Myclobutanil,  Norflurazon,  Norflurazon desmethyl,  Novaluron,  Omethoate,  Oxamyl,  Oxyfluorfen,  Paradichlorobenzene,  Parathion ethyl,  Parathion methyl,  Penconazole,  Pendimethalin,  Penthiopyrad,  Permethrin,  Cispermethrin,  Transpermethrin,  Phenothrin,  Phorate,  Phosalone,  Phosmet,  Phosmet oxon,  Picoxystrobin,  Piperonyl butoxide,  Pirimiphos-methyl,  Prallethrin,  Prodiamine,  Profenofos,  Prometon,  Prometryn,  Pronamide,  Propachlor,  Propamocarb hydrochloride,  Propanil,  Propargite,  Propazine,  Propetamphos,  Propham,  Propiconazole,  Pymetrozine,  Pyrethrins (cinerin I),  Pyridaben,  Pyrimethanil,  Pyriproxyfen,  Quinoxyfen,  Quintozene,  Resmethrin,  Resmethrin, cis,  Resmethrin, trans,  Sethoxydim,  Simazine,  Spinetoram,  Spinosad,  Spinosyn A,  Spinosyn D,  Spirodiclofen,  Spiromesifen,  Spirotetramat,  Sulfoxaflor,  Tebuconazole,  Tebufenozide,  Tebuthiuron,  Tefluthrin,  Tetrachlorvinphos (Dietreen T),  Tetraconazole,  Tetradifon,  Tetramethrin,  Thiabendazole,  Thiacloprid,  Thiamethoxam,  THPI,  Thymol,  Tolfenpyrad,  Triadimefon,  Triadimenol,  Triazophos,  Tribufos,  Trifloxystrobin,  Triflumizole,  Trifluralin,  Triticonazole,  Vinclozolin, 

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