National Honey Bee Survey Wax Pesticide Sampling Report

Further sampling summary information can be found at the USDA APHIS National Honey Bee Survey Report page. This report lists the level of detection (LOD) and the prevalence (percentage that the pesticide occurred) in all samples taken across the country as part of wax sampling since 2017. For example, if the prevalence value for a pesticide is given as “10”, the pesticide was detected in 10% of all samples received. Finally, this table also provides the average and the range in ppb (parts per billion) of pesticides found in all of the samples.

Pesticide samples were collected from brood comb wax and processed at the USDA Agriculture Marketing Service (USDA-AMS). Sampling from bee bread was done from 2011 to 2017. From 2017 to present, the pesticide sampling protocol uses wax. Access the bee bread sampling report here.

United States Department of Agriculture


The Bee Informed Partnership
at beeinformed.org
funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Apiary Inspectors of America



Table: Prevalence of Pesticides found in all samples (n=1011) analyzed for the National Honey Bee disease survey.

Pesticide Detected LOD (ppb) # Samples Prevalence (%) Average Level (ppb) Level Range
1-Naphthol -1-500.0 991 0.1 430.0 430.0
2,4-DMPF -1-25.0 1011 72.0 3097.9 Trace - 258000.0
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) -1-5.0 999 2.2 22.6 Trace - 179.0
4-Hydroxychlorothalonil 2.0-10.0 365 0.5 22.0 19.0 - 25.0
4-OH-Chlorothalonil -1-5.0 646 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Acephate -1-250.0 991 0.1 51.0 51.0
Acetamiprid -1-8.0 1011 2.8 10.3 Trace - 19.0
Acetochlor -1-100.0 1011 18.4 243.1 Trace - 740.0
Alachlor -1-200.0 1011 1.1 151.2 Trace - 240.0
Aldrin 30.0 12 8.3 99.0 99.0
Ametoctradin -1-3.0 999 3.1 10.8 Trace - 70.0
Atrazine -1-4.0 1011 25.9 15.5 Trace - 214.0
Azinphos-methyl 250.0 353 1.7 1576.0 Trace - 2670.0
Azoxystrobin -1-5.0 1011 53.7 29.3 Trace - 1070.0
Bensulide -1-5.0 979 0.1 Trace Trace*
Bifenazate -1-15.0 459 2.2 15.2 Trace - 31.0
Bifenthrin -1-25.0 966 1.6 132.4 Trace - 328.0
Boscalid -1-10.0 1011 18.9 25.1 Trace - 232.0
Bromacil -1-20.0 1011 0.7 14.5 Trace - 17.0
Buprofezin -1-60.0 1011 11.5 23.5 Trace - 543.0
Captan -1-250.0 994 1.8 438.8 Trace - 1150.0
Carbaryl -1-5.0 911 5.7 50.7 Trace - 452.0
Carbendazim -1-25.0 999 52.4 110.6 Trace - 2510.0
Carbendazim (MBC) 5.0 12 83.3 39.5 Trace - 130.0
Carbofuran -1-10.0 1011 0.3 3.3 2.0 - 4.0
Chlorantraniliprole -1-15.0 1011 13.2 30.0 Trace - 151.0
Chlorfenapyr 250.0 353 0.3 Trace Trace*
Chlorfenopyr -1-13.0 658 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Chlorothalonil -1-250.0 1011 34.6 1103.3 Trace - 57400.0
Chlorpropham -1-15.0 999 0.1 Trace Trace*
Chlorpyrifos -1-5.0 1011 26.8 19.6 Trace - 273.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl -1-3.0 646 11.3 6.5 Trace - 30.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA) 2.0 353 12.2 6.0 Trace - 20.0
Coumaphos -1-5.0 1011 86.2 215.3 Trace - 23700.0
Coumaphos oxon -1-2.0 1011 55.9 19.5 Trace - 1190.0
Cyantraniliprole -1-25.0 1011 0.4 44.0 Trace - 44.0
Cyazofamid -1-30.0 1011 0.2 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Cymoxanil -1-4.0 999 0.1 Trace Trace*
Cypermethrin -1-25.0 1006 0.7 53.0 Trace - 53.0
Cyprodinil -1-10.0 988 35.8 68.2 Trace - 3780.0
Cyromazine 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
DDE p,p' -1-5.0 651 16.9 7.0 Trace - 9.0
DDE, p,p' 2.0 293 13.3 17.0 Trace - 18.0
DEET -1-13.0 999 30.2 116.0 Trace - 3850.0
Dichlorvos -1-5.0 646 0.2 8.0 8.0
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 3.0-15.0 365 0.3 4.0 4.0
Dicloran -1-25.0 1011 1.9 25.7 Trace - 27.0
Dicofol -1-250.0 951 0.2 Trace Trace - Trace
Difenoconazole -1-10.0 1011 18.5 14.4 Trace - 129.0
Diflubenzuron -1-5.0 1011 13.4 83.8 Trace - 7240.0
Dimethenamid -1-10.0 1005 1.9 5.7 Trace - 6.0
Dimethoate -1-15.0 1011 1.3 26.6 Trace - 101.0
Diphenylamine -1-3.0 999 12.5 5.9 Trace - 16.0
Diuron -1-6.0 935 39.6 17.6 Trace - 232.0
Endosulfan II -1-25.0 1011 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Endosulfan sulfate -1-25.0 994 0.1 Trace Trace*
Esfenvalerate -1-13.0 658 0.6 22.0 Trace - 22.0
Ethofenprox -1-125.0 646 4.6 Trace Trace - Trace
Etofenprox 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 81.0 81.0
Etoxazole -1-5.0 1011 0.7 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Famoxadone -1-25.0 1011 0.4 18.0 Trace - 25.0
Fenamidone -1-30.0 1011 2.0 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Fenazaquin -1-5.0 1011 0.1 2.0 2.0
Fenbuconazole -1-15.0 1011 13.5 33.2 Trace - 705.0
Fenhexamid -1-30.0 1011 0.4 240.5 9.0 - 770.0
Fenpropathrin -1-25.0 1011 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fenpyroximate -1-4.0 1011 44.4 65.4 Trace - 4740.0
Fipronil -1-50.0 1011 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfide -1-5.0 1011 1.5 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Fipronil sulfone -1-25.0 1011 0.2 Trace Trace - Trace
Flonicamid -1-38.0 1011 0.5 74.0 Trace - 118.0
Fludioxonil -1-60.0 1011 10.6 215.5 Trace - 5850.0
Flumeturon -1-2.0 646 12.2 7.4 Trace - 81.0
Fluometuron 1.0-40.0 358 0.3 Trace Trace*
Fluopicolide -1-3.0 999 1.2 9.5 Trace - 26.0
Fluopyram -1-5.0 1011 27.5 22.1 Trace - 503.0
Fluoxastrobin -1-5.0 1011 0.3 6.5 Trace - 10.0
Flupyradifurone -1-25.0 1011 2.4 54.9 Trace - 403.0
Fluridone -1-5.0 1011 0.1 1.0 1.0
Flutriafol -1-10.0 999 0.1 18.0 18.0
Fluvalinate -1-50.0 1011 63.9 1022.9 Trace - 90000.0
Fluxapyroxad -1-2.0 999 18.9 8.6 Trace - 158.0
Hexazinone -1-10.0 1011 0.4 2.0 Trace - 3.0
Hexythiazox -1-15.0 1011 20.0 3.2 Trace - 26.0
Imazalil -1-20.0 991 0.1 46.0 46.0
Imidacloprid -1-6.0 1011 1.0 13.5 Trace - 24.0
Indoxacarb -1-30.0 1011 3.1 14.3 Trace - 36.0
Iprodione -1-100.0 1011 32.7 259.8 Trace - 3370.0
Kresoxim-methyl -1-10.0 1011 0.5 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Linuron -1-15.0 1011 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
MGK-264 7.0-25.0 365 2.7 26.4 Trace - 52.0
Malathion -1-25.0 1011 1.4 337.7 Trace - 939.0
Mandipropamide -1-10.0 1011 4.2 6.6 Trace - 28.0
Metalaxyl -1-5.0 1006 3.4 7.7 Trace - 29.0
Metalaxyl Total 5.0 5 20.0 Trace Trace*
Metconazole -1-10.0 1011 3.1 37.0 Trace - 159.0
Methomyl -1-25.0 991 0.1 8.0 8.0
Methoprene -1-5000.0 1006 1.9 4975.7 Trace - 6300.0
Methoxyfenozide -1-5.0 1011 23.6 30.3 Trace - 1020.0
Metolachlor -1-25.0 1011 41.8 74.1 Trace - 521.0
Metribuzin -1-25.0 1011 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Mgk-264 -1-20.0 646 2.0 759.8 Trace - 2450.0
Momfluorothrin -1-25.0 999 0.2 28.0 Trace - 28.0
Myclobutanil -1-15.0 1011 0.4 86.0 Trace - 129.0
Norflurazon -1-15.0 1011 0.7 27.0 Trace - 27.0
Norflurazon Desmethyl -1-5.0 646 0.3 11.0 Trace - 11.0
Norflurazon desmethyl 5.0-25.0 365 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Novaluron -1-30.0 1011 3.6 13.3 Trace - 54.0
Omethoate -1-100.0 988 0.7 1220.3 210.0 - 3350.0
Oxamyl -1-20.0 1011 0.1 Trace Trace*
Oxyfluorfen -1-100.0 1011 6.0 55.1 Trace - 388.0
Pendimethalin -1-50.0 1011 5.5 57.8 Trace - 234.0
Penthiopyrad -1-2.0 988 27.1 13.9 Trace - 203.0
Permethrin -1-100.0 959 1.0 1598.0 Trace - 3360.0
Phenothrin -1-100.0 1011 0.4 641.8 497.0 - 941.0
Phosmet -1-100.0 1011 0.8 226.0 Trace - 388.0
Picoxystrobin -1-3.0 999 0.4 22.0 Trace - 56.0
Piperonyl Butoxide -1-6.0 646 56.5 80.2 Trace - 4660.0
Piperonyl butoxide 12.0-15.0 365 57.3 210.7 Trace - 2620.0
Prallethrin -1-250.0 994 0.9 109.4 17.0 - 415.0
Prodiamine -1-100.0 1011 0.4 40.5 Trace - 60.0
Prometon -1-3.0 999 5.2 18.0 Trace - 293.0
Prometryn -1-4.0 999 0.4 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Propamocarb hydrochloride 2.0 353 6.2 15.4 Trace - 127.0
Propanil -1-10.0 1011 1.6 22.5 Trace - 64.0
Propargite -1-15.0 1011 40.7 46.2 Trace - 2710.0
Propiconazole -1-15.0 1011 22.7 35.6 Trace - 1050.0
Pyraclostrobin -1-5.0 1011 39.3 22.9 Trace - 415.0
Pyridaben -1-5.0 1011 3.7 22.7 Trace - 96.0
Pyrimethanil -1-15.0 1011 17.9 37.6 Trace - 1080.0
Pyriproxyfen -1-5.0 1011 3.5 7.2 Trace - 30.0
Quinoxyfen -1-15.0 1011 1.8 5.0 Trace - 15.0
Quintozine -1-5.0 646 0.2 Trace Trace*
Sethoxydim -1-10.0 1011 0.2 16.5 5.0 - 28.0
Simazine -1-50.0 1011 0.3 283.0 32.0 - 758.0
Spinetoram 15.0-100.0 320 4.1 16.0 Trace - 16.0
Spinosad 7.0-15.0 320 6.9 22.8 Trace - 40.0
Spirodiclofen -1-5.0 1011 5.7 7.8 Trace - 33.0
Spiromesifen -1-50.0 986 0.1 42.0 42.0
Spirotetramat -1-30.0 1011 0.6 4.5 Trace - 5.0
Sulfoxaflor -1-25.0 1011 0.1 Trace Trace*
THPI -1-125.0 1011 0.6 512.3 130.0 - 1880.0
Tebuconazole -1-25.0 1011 15.3 43.4 Trace - 201.0
Tebufenozide -1-5.0 1011 5.7 16.4 Trace - 196.0
Tetramethrin -1-125.0 1011 0.6 10891.8 901.0 - 30600.0
Thiabendazole -1-5.0 1011 0.9 32.0 Trace - 38.0
Thiacloprid -1-5.0 1011 0.4 15.0 Trace - 15.0
Thiamethoxam -1-10.0 1011 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Thymol -1-50.0 1011 75.0 10833.7 Trace - 1440000.0
Tribufos -1-100.0 999 0.2 38.5 31.0 - 46.0
Trifloxystrobin -1-10.0 1011 37.7 12.9 Trace - 257.0
Triflumizole -1-40.0 961 2.5 5.5 1.0 - 24.0
Trifluralin -1-13.0 1011 3.6 19.8 Trace - 27.0
cyhalothrin lambda -1-50.0 646 0.8 Trace Trace - Trace

*Only a single detection made for this pesticide.

USDA-AMS tests for a broad spectrum of pesticides deemed possible to discover in honey bee colonies. The list of pesticides changes over time as new pesticides are introduced to market, and others are deemed to be unlikely to detect. Below is the list of all pesticides that have been tested for (n = 301), including substances not detected in any samples.

Mefenoxam,  Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Azinphos methyl,  BHC alpha,  Carfentrazone ethyl,  Chlorfenopyr,  Cyhalothrin total,  Dichlorvos (DDVP),  Endosulfan I,  Endosulfan II,  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB),  Lindane,  Fenoxaprop-ethyl,  DDT p,p',  DDD p,p',  Amitraz,  Potasan,  1-Naphthol,  Imidacloprid 5-hydroxy,  Naled,  Permethrin total,  Pirimiphos methyl,  Pyrethrins,  Quintozene (PCNB),  Tetrachlorvinphos,  Tribufos (DEF),  Resmethrin total,  Prothioconazole,  Phosmet OA,  Methiocarb,  Atrazine CEAT,  Atrazine CIAT,  Benfluralin,  Ethalfluralin,  Diclofop-methyl,  DDT o,p',  4-Aminopyridine,  Mesotrione,  Metalaxyl Total,  Formetanate,  Cypermethrin total,  Cyfluthrin total,  Esfenvalerate/Fenvalerate,  Chlorpropham,  Carbendazim,  Avermectin,  Tetradiafon,  Quintozine,  Piperonyl Butoxide,  Phosmet Oa,  Parathion,  Norflurazon Desmethyl,  Mgk-264,  Flumeturon,  Ethofenprox,  cyhalothrin lambda,  Chlorthal-dimethyl,  Bentazone,  4-OH-Chlorothalonil,  3-hydroxycarbofuran,  2,4-DMPF,  2,4 Dimethylaniline,  2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF),  2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM),  3-Hydroxycarbofuran,  4,4 Dibromobenzophenone,  4-Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Acephate,  Acetamiprid,  Acetochlor,  Acrinathrin,  Alachlor,  Aldicarb,  Aldicarb sulfone,  Aldicarb sulfoxide,  Aldrin,  Allethrin,  Amicarbazone,  Ametoctradin,  Atrazine,  Abamectin,  Azinphos-methyl,  Azoxystrobin,  Bendiocarb,  Benoxacor,  Bensulide,  Bentazon,  BHC-alpha,  BHC-beta,  BHC-delta,  BHC-gamma,  Bifenazate,  Bifenthrin,  Boscalid,  Bromacil,  Bromopropylate,  Bromuconazole,  Buprofezin,  Captan,  Carbaryl,  Carbendazim (MBC),  Carbofuran,  Carboxin,  Carfentrazone-ethyl,  Chlorantraniliprole,  Chlorfenapyr,  Chlorfenvinphos,  Chlorferone,  Etofenprox,  Chlorothalonil,  Chlorothalonil-4-OH,  Chlorpropham (CIPC),  Chlorpyrifos,  Chlorpyrifos methyl,  Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA),  Clofentezine,  Clothianidin,  Coumaphos,  Coumaphos oxon,  Cyantraniliprole,  Cyazofamid,  Cyflufenamid,  Cyflumetofen,  Cyfluthrin,  Cyhalothrin,  Cymiazole,  Cymoxanil,  Cypermethrin,  Cyphenothrin,  Cyprodinil,  Cyromazine,  DDD pp',  DDE, p,p',  DDT, p,p',  DEET,  Deltamethrin,  Diazinon,  Diazinon oxon,  Dichlorvos,  Dicloran,  Dicofol,  Dieldrin,  Difenoconazole,  Diflubenzuron,  Dimethenamid,  Dimethoate,  Dimethomorph,  Dinotefuran,  Diphenamid,  Diphenylamine,  Diuron,  Emamectin Benzoate,  Alpha-endosulfan,  Beta-endosulfan,  Endosulfan sulfate,  Endrin,  Epoxiconazole,  Esfenvalerate,  Fenvalerate,  Ethion,  Ethofumesate,  Etoxazole,  Etridiazole,  Famoxadone,  Fenamidone,  Fenarimol,  Fenazaquin,  Fenbuconazole,  Fenhexamid,  Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl,  Fenpropathrin,  Fenpyroximate,  Fenthion,  Fipronil,  Fipronil sulfide,  Fipronil sulfone,  Flonicamid,  Flubendiamide,  Fludioxonil,  Fluometuron,  Fluopicolide,  Fluopyram,  Fluoxastrobin,  Flupyradifurone,  Fluridone,  Flutolanil,  Flutriafol,  Fluvalinate,  Fluxapyroxad,  Heptachlor,  Heptachlor epoxide,  Hexachlorobenzene,  Hexazinone,  Hexythiazox,  Hydroprene,  Imazalil,  Imidacloprid,  Imidacloprid-5-hydroxy,  Imidacloprid olefin,  Indoxacarb,  Iprodione,  Isoprocarb,  Kresoxim-methyl,  Linuron,  Malathion,  Mandipropamide,  Metalaxyl,  Metconazole,  Methamidophos,  Methidathion,  Methomyl,  Pyraclostrobin,  Methoprene,  Methoxyfenozide,  Metolachlor,  Metribuzin,  MGK-264,  MGK-326,  Momfluorothrin,  Myclobutanil,  Norflurazon,  Norflurazon desmethyl,  Novaluron,  Omethoate,  Oxamyl,  Oxyfluorfen,  Paradichlorobenzene,  Parathion ethyl,  Parathion methyl,  Penconazole,  Pendimethalin,  Penthiopyrad,  Permethrin,  Cispermethrin,  Transpermethrin,  Phenothrin,  Phorate,  Phosalone,  Phosmet,  Phosmet oxon,  Picoxystrobin,  Piperonyl butoxide,  Pirimiphos-methyl,  Prallethrin,  Prodiamine,  Profenofos,  Prometon,  Prometryn,  Pronamide,  Propachlor,  Propamocarb hydrochloride,  Propanil,  Propargite,  Propazine,  Propetamphos,  Propham,  Propiconazole,  Pymetrozine,  Pyrethrins (cinerin I),  Pyridaben,  Pyrimethanil,  Pyriproxyfen,  Quinoxyfen,  Quintozene,  Resmethrin,  Resmethrin, cis,  Resmethrin, trans,  Sethoxydim,  Simazine,  Spinetoram,  Spinosad,  Spinosyn A,  Spinosyn D,  Spirodiclofen,  Spiromesifen,  Spirotetramat,  Sulfoxaflor,  Tebuconazole,  Tebufenozide,  Tebuthiuron,  Tefluthrin,  Tetrachlorvinphos (Dietreen T),  Tetraconazole,  Tetradifon,  Tetramethrin,  Thiabendazole,  Thiacloprid,  Thiamethoxam,  THPI,  Thymol,  Tolfenpyrad,  Triadimefon,  Triadimenol,  Triazophos,  Tribufos,  Trifloxystrobin,  Triflumizole,  Trifluralin,  Triticonazole,  Vinclozolin,  DDE p,p', 

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