National Honey Bee Survey Wax Pesticide Sampling Report

Further sampling summary information can be found at the USDA APHIS National Honey Bee Survey Report page. This report lists the level of detection (LOD) and the prevalence (percentage that the pesticide occurred) in all samples taken across the country as part of wax sampling since 2017. For example, if the prevalence value for a pesticide is given as “10”, the pesticide was detected in 10% of all samples received. Finally, this table also provides the average and the range in ppb (parts per billion) of pesticides found in all of the samples.

Pesticide samples were collected from brood comb wax and processed at the USDA Agriculture Marketing Service (USDA-AMS). Sampling from bee bread was done from 2011 to 2017. From 2017 to present, the pesticide sampling protocol uses wax. Access the bee bread sampling report here.

United States Department of Agriculture


The Bee Informed Partnership
at beeinformed.org
funded by USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Apiary Inspectors of America



Table: Prevalence of Pesticides found in all samples (n=1028) analyzed for the National Honey Bee disease survey.

Pesticide Detected LOD (ppb) # Samples Prevalence (%) Average Level (ppb) Level Range
1-Naphthol 50.0-500.0 1008 0.1 430.0 430.0
2,4-DMPF 1.5-25.0 1028 71.1 3096.2 Trace - 258000.0
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) 2.0-5.0 1016 2.2 22.6 Trace - 179.0
4-Hydroxychlorothalonil 2.0-10.0 365 0.5 22.0 19.0 - 25.0
4-OH-Chlorothalonil 2.0-5.0 663 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Acephate 20.0-250.0 1008 0.1 51.0 51.0
Acetamiprid 2.5-8.0 1028 2.7 10.3 Trace - 19.0
Acetochlor 15.0-100.0 1028 18.2 241.3 Trace - 740.0
Alachlor 15.0-200.0 1028 1.1 151.2 Trace - 240.0
Aldrin 30.0 12 8.3 99.0 99.0
Ametoctradin 1.0-3.0 1016 3.1 10.8 Trace - 70.0
Atrazine 1.0-4.0 1028 25.6 15.5 Trace - 214.0
Azinphos-methyl 250.0 353 1.7 1576.0 Trace - 2670.0
Azoxystrobin 0.8-5.0 1028 53.0 29.3 Trace - 1070.0
Bensulide 2.0-5.0 996 0.1 Trace Trace*
Bifenazate 1.6-15.0 476 2.1 15.2 Trace - 31.0
Bifenthrin 10.0-25.0 983 1.5 132.4 Trace - 328.0
Boscalid 2.0-10.0 1028 18.6 25.1 Trace - 232.0
Bromacil 4.0-20.0 1028 0.7 14.5 Trace - 17.0
Buprofezin 0.8-60.0 1028 11.5 23.2 Trace - 543.0
Captan 50.0-250.0 1011 1.8 438.8 Trace - 1150.0
Carbaryl 2.0-5.0 928 5.6 50.7 Trace - 452.0
Carbendazim 2.0-25.0 1016 52.2 110.5 Trace - 2510.0
Carbendazim (MBC) 5.0 12 83.3 39.5 Trace - 130.0
Carbofuran 0.8-10.0 1028 0.3 3.3 2.0 - 4.0
Chlorantraniliprole 5.0-15.0 1028 13.0 29.9 Trace - 151.0
Chlorfenapyr 250.0 353 0.3 Trace Trace*
Chlorfenopyr 5.0-13.0 675 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Chlorothalonil 10.0-250.0 1028 34.0 1103.3 Trace - 57400.0
Chlorpropham 6.0-15.0 1016 0.1 Trace Trace*
Chlorpyrifos 5.0 1019 26.6 19.6 Trace - 273.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl 3.0 663 11.3 6.5 Trace - 30.0
Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA) 2.0 353 12.2 6.0 Trace - 20.0
Coumaphos 2.0-5.0 1028 85.5 215.3 Trace - 23700.0
Coumaphos oxon 0.4-5.0 1028 55.3 19.5 Trace - 1190.0
Cyantraniliprole 5.0-25.0 1028 0.4 44.0 Trace - 44.0
Cyazofamid 0.8-30.0 1028 0.2 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Cymoxanil 1.6-25.0 1016 0.1 Trace Trace*
Cypermethrin 8.0-25.0 1023 0.8 53.0 Trace - 53.0
Cyprodinil 1.0-25.0 1005 35.3 68.1 Trace - 3780.0
Cyromazine 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 Trace Trace*
DDE p,p' 3.0-1000.0 668 16.9 7.0 Trace - 9.0
DDE, p,p' 2.0 293 13.3 17.0 Trace - 18.0
DEET 3.0-13.0 1007 30.5 114.6 Trace - 3850.0
Dichlorvos 2.0-25.0 663 0.2 8.0 8.0
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 3.0-15.0 365 0.3 4.0 4.0
Dicloran 4.0-25.0 1028 1.8 25.7 Trace - 27.0
Dicofol 5.0-250.0 968 0.2 Trace Trace - Trace
Difenoconazole 1.6-25.0 1028 18.2 14.4 Trace - 129.0
Diflubenzuron 1.0-150.0 1028 13.3 83.4 Trace - 7240.0
Dimethenamid 1.6-10.0 1022 2.0 5.7 Trace - 6.0
Dimethoate 2.0-15.0 1028 1.3 26.6 Trace - 101.0
Diphenylamine 2.0-25.0 1016 12.9 6.0 Trace - 16.0
Diuron 1.0-6.0 952 39.3 17.5 Trace - 232.0
Endosulfan II 5.0-25.0 1028 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Endosulfan sulfate 10.0-25.0 1011 0.1 Trace Trace*
Esfenvalerate 5.0-25.0 675 0.6 22.0 Trace - 22.0
Ethofenprox 13.0-125.0 663 4.7 Trace Trace - Trace
Etofenprox 5.0-25.0 365 0.3 81.0 81.0
Etoxazole 0.4-125.0 1028 0.7 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Famoxadone 3.0-25.0 1028 0.4 18.0 Trace - 25.0
Fenamidone 1.0-30.0 1028 1.9 3.0 Trace - 4.0
Fenazaquin 0.4-25.0 1028 0.1 2.0 2.0
Fenbuconazole 1.0-25.0 1028 13.3 32.9 Trace - 705.0
Fenhexamid 1.0-30.0 1028 0.4 240.5 9.0 - 770.0
Fenpropathrin 9.0-25.0 1028 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fenpyroximate 1.0-4.0 1028 44.0 65.1 Trace - 4740.0
Fipronil 25.0-50.0 1028 0.1 Trace Trace*
Fipronil sulfide 3.0-5.0 1028 1.5 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Fipronil sulfone 5.0-25.0 1028 0.2 Trace Trace - Trace
Flonicamid 5.0-38.0 1028 0.5 74.0 Trace - 118.0
Fludioxonil 10.0-60.0 1028 10.5 215.5 Trace - 5850.0
Flumeturon 0.8-38.0 663 11.9 7.4 Trace - 81.0
Fluometuron 1.0-40.0 358 0.3 Trace Trace*
Fluopicolide 1.0-10.0 1016 1.2 9.5 Trace - 26.0
Fluopyram 0.8-5.0 1028 27.0 22.1 Trace - 503.0
Fluoxastrobin 0.8-5.0 1028 0.3 6.5 Trace - 10.0
Flupyradifurone 2.0-25.0 1028 2.3 54.9 Trace - 403.0
Fluridone 0.4-5.0 1028 0.1 1.0 1.0
Flutriafol 2.0-10.0 1016 0.1 18.0 18.0
Fluvalinate 1.0-50.0 1028 63.1 1021.1 Trace - 90000.0
Fluxapyroxad 0.8-5.0 1016 18.7 8.6 Trace - 158.0
Hexazinone 0.4-10.0 1028 0.4 2.0 Trace - 3.0
Hexythiazox 0.4-25.0 1028 19.7 3.2 Trace - 26.0
Imazalil 2.0-20.0 1008 0.1 46.0 46.0
Imidacloprid 1.0-6.0 1028 1.0 13.5 Trace - 24.0
Indoxacarb 1.0-30.0 1028 3.0 14.3 Trace - 36.0
Iprodione 10.0-100.0 1028 32.4 258.0 Trace - 3370.0
Kresoxim-methyl 1.0-10.0 1028 0.5 9.0 Trace - 9.0
Linuron 5.0-15.0 1028 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
MGK-264 7.0-25.0 365 2.7 26.4 Trace - 52.0
Malathion 10.0-50.0 1028 1.4 337.7 Trace - 939.0
Mandipropamide 0.8-10.0 1028 4.1 6.6 Trace - 28.0
Metalaxyl 0.8-13.0 1023 3.3 7.7 Trace - 29.0
Metalaxyl Total 5.0 5 20.0 Trace Trace*
Metconazole 2.0-25.0 1028 3.0 37.0 Trace - 159.0
Methomyl 2.0-25.0 1008 0.1 8.0 8.0
Methoprene 25.0-5000.0 1023 1.9 4975.7 Trace - 6300.0
Methoxyfenozide 0.8-5.0 1028 23.3 30.2 Trace - 1020.0
Metolachlor 5.0-25.0 1028 41.3 74.1 Trace - 521.0
Metribuzin 5.0-2500.0 1028 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Mgk-264 2.0-20.0 663 2.0 759.8 Trace - 2450.0
Momfluorothrin 25.0 1016 0.2 28.0 Trace - 28.0
Myclobutanil 3.0-15.0 1028 0.4 86.0 Trace - 129.0
Norflurazon 2.0-15.0 1028 0.7 27.0 Trace - 27.0
Norflurazon Desmethyl 2.0-25.0 663 0.3 11.0 Trace - 11.0
Norflurazon desmethyl 5.0-25.0 365 0.5 Trace Trace - Trace
Novaluron 2.0-30.0 1028 3.5 13.3 Trace - 54.0
Omethoate 5.0-100.0 1005 0.7 1220.3 210.0 - 3350.0
Oxamyl 4.0-20.0 1028 0.1 Trace Trace*
Oxyfluorfen 5.0-100.0 1028 6.0 54.6 Trace - 388.0
Pendimethalin 15.0-50.0 1028 5.4 57.8 Trace - 234.0
Penthiopyrad 0.8-25.0 1005 26.9 13.9 Trace - 203.0
Permethrin 2.0-100.0 976 1.0 1598.0 Trace - 3360.0
Phenothrin 25.0-100.0 1028 0.4 641.8 497.0 - 941.0
Phosmet 50.0-100.0 1028 0.8 226.0 Trace - 388.0
Picoxystrobin 0.8-25.0 1016 0.4 22.0 Trace - 56.0
Piperonyl Butoxide 1.0-50.0 663 56.6 85.5 Trace - 4660.0
Piperonyl butoxide 12.0-15.0 365 57.3 210.7 Trace - 2620.0
Prallethrin 1.0-250.0 1011 0.9 109.4 17.0 - 415.0
Prodiamine 2.0-100.0 1028 0.4 40.5 Trace - 60.0
Prometon 1.0-13.0 1016 5.2 18.0 Trace - 293.0
Prometryn 1.0-20.0 1016 0.4 8.0 Trace - 8.0
Propamocarb hydrochloride 2.0 353 6.2 15.4 Trace - 127.0
Propanil 2.0-10.0 1028 1.6 22.5 Trace - 64.0
Propargite 1.0-25.0 1028 40.4 46.1 Trace - 2710.0
Propiconazole 2.0-15.0 1028 22.5 36.1 Trace - 1050.0
Pyraclostrobin 1.0-5.0 1028 38.8 22.8 Trace - 415.0
Pyridaben 1.0-5.0 1028 3.6 22.7 Trace - 96.0
Pyrimethanil 2.0-250.0 1028 17.7 37.4 Trace - 1080.0
Pyriproxyfen 1.0-5.0 1028 3.4 7.2 Trace - 30.0
Quinoxyfen 0.8-15.0 1028 1.8 4.8 Trace - 15.0
Quintozine 5.0 663 0.2 Trace Trace*
Sethoxydim 1.0-10.0 1028 0.2 16.5 5.0 - 28.0
Simazine 5.0-50.0 1028 0.3 283.0 32.0 - 758.0
Spinetoram 15.0-100.0 320 4.1 16.0 Trace - 16.0
Spinosad 7.0-15.0 320 6.9 22.8 Trace - 40.0
Spirodiclofen 1.6-500.0 1028 5.6 7.8 Trace - 33.0
Spiromesifen 15.0-50.0 994 0.1 42.0 42.0
Spirotetramat 1.0-30.0 1028 0.6 4.5 Trace - 5.0
Sulfoxaflor 4.0-25.0 1028 0.1 Trace Trace*
THPI 5.0-125.0 1028 0.6 512.3 130.0 - 1880.0
Tebuconazole 5.0-38.0 1028 15.2 44.8 Trace - 201.0
Tebufenozide 0.4-5.0 1028 5.6 16.4 Trace - 196.0
Tetramethrin 5.0-125.0 1028 0.6 10891.8 901.0 - 30600.0
Thiabendazole 2.0-5.0 1028 0.9 32.0 Trace - 38.0
Thiacloprid 1.0-10.0 1028 0.4 15.0 Trace - 15.0
Thiamethoxam 2.0-125.0 1028 0.3 Trace Trace - Trace
Thymol 2.0-50.0 1028 74.0 10791.3 Trace - 1440000.0
Tribufos 3.0-100.0 1016 0.2 38.5 31.0 - 46.0
Trifloxystrobin 0.4-10.0 1028 37.3 12.8 Trace - 257.0
Triflumizole 0.8-40.0 978 2.5 5.5 1.0 - 24.0
Trifluralin 2.0-13.0 1028 3.5 19.8 Trace - 27.0
cyhalothrin lambda 10.0-50.0 663 0.8 Trace Trace - Trace

*Only a single detection made for this pesticide.

USDA-AMS tests for a broad spectrum of pesticides deemed possible to discover in honey bee colonies. The list of pesticides changes over time as new pesticides are introduced to market, and others are deemed to be unlikely to detect. Below is the list of all pesticides that have been tested for (n = 301), including substances not detected in any samples.

Mefenoxam,  Esfenvalerate/Fenvalerate,  Chlorpropham,  Carbendazim,  Avermectin,  Tetradiafon,  Quintozine,  Piperonyl Butoxide,  Phosmet Oa,  Parathion,  Norflurazon Desmethyl,  Mgk-264,  Flumeturon,  Ethofenprox,  cyhalothrin lambda,  Chlorthal-dimethyl,  Bentazone,  4-OH-Chlorothalonil,  3-hydroxycarbofuran,  2,4-DMPF,  2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM),  2,4 Dimethylaniline,  4,4 Dibromobenzophenone,  Acrinathrin,  Ametoctradin,  Azinphos-methyl,  Bensulide,  Bentazon,  BHC-alpha,  BHC-beta,  BHC-delta,  BHC-gamma,  Bromopropylate,  Carfentrazone-ethyl,  Chlorfenapyr,  Chlorothalonil-4-OH,  Chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA),  Chlorferone,  Cyflufenamid,  Cyflumetofen,  Cyhalothrin,  Cymiazole,  Cymoxanil,  DDD pp',  DDT, p,p',  DEET,  Dichlorvos,  DDE, p,p',  Diphenylamine,  Alpha-endosulfan,  Beta-endosulfan,  Fenvalerate,  Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl,  Endosulfan sulfate,  Fluopicolide,  Flutriafol,  Fluxapyroxad,  Hexachlorobenzene,  Imidacloprid-5-hydroxy,  Isoprocarb,  Momfluorothrin,  Penconazole,  Penthiopyrad,  Permethrin,  Cispermethrin,  Transpermethrin,  Phosmet oxon,  Picoxystrobin,  Pirimiphos-methyl,  Prometon,  Prometryn,  Propamocarb hydrochloride,  Pyrethrins (cinerin I),  Quintozene,  Resmethrin,  Resmethrin, cis,  Resmethrin, trans,  Spinosyn A,  Spinosyn D,  Tetrachlorvinphos (Dietreen T),  THPI,  Triazophos,  Tribufos,  1-Naphthol,  2,4 Dimethylphenyl formamide (DMPF),  3-Hydroxycarbofuran,  4-Aminopyridine,  4-Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Abamectin,  Acephate,  Acetamiprid,  Acetochlor,  Alachlor,  Aldicarb,  Aldicarb sulfone,  Aldicarb sulfoxide,  Aldrin,  Allethrin,  Amicarbazone,  Amitraz,  Clofentezine,  Atrazine,  Atrazine CEAT,  Atrazine CIAT,  Azinphos methyl,  Azoxystrobin,  BHC alpha,  Bendiocarb,  Benfluralin,  Benoxacor,  Bifenazate,  Bifenthrin,  Boscalid,  Bromacil,  Bromuconazole,  Buprofezin,  Captan,  Carbaryl,  Carbendazim (MBC),  Carbofuran,  Carboxin,  Carfentrazone ethyl,  Chlorantraniliprole,  Chlorfenopyr,  Chlorfenvinphos,  Chlorothalonil,  Chlorpropham (CIPC),  Chlorpyrifos,  Chlorpyrifos methyl,  Clothianidin,  Coumaphos,  Coumaphos oxon,  Cyantraniliprole,  Cyazofamid,  Cyfluthrin,  Cyfluthrin total,  Cyhalothrin total,  Cypermethrin,  Cypermethrin total,  Cyphenothrin,  Cyprodinil,  Cyromazine,  DDD p,p',  DDT o,p',  DDT p,p',  Deltamethrin,  Diazinon,  Diazinon oxon,  Dichlorvos (DDVP),  Diclofop-methyl,  Dicloran,  Dicofol,  Dieldrin,  Difenoconazole,  Diflubenzuron,  Dimethenamid,  Dimethoate,  Dimethomorph,  Dinotefuran,  Diphenamid,  Diuron,  Emamectin Benzoate,  Endosulfan I,  Endosulfan II,  Endrin,  Epoxiconazole,  Esfenvalerate,  Ethalfluralin,  Ethion,  Ethofumesate,  Etofenprox,  Etoxazole,  Etridiazole,  Famoxadone,  Fenamidone,  Fenarimol,  Fenazaquin,  Fenbuconazole,  Fenhexamid,  Fenoxaprop-ethyl,  Fenpropathrin,  Fenpyroximate,  Fenthion,  Fipronil,  Fipronil sulfide,  Fipronil sulfone,  Flonicamid,  Flubendiamide,  Fludioxonil,  Fluometuron,  Fluopyram,  Fluoxastrobin,  Flupyradifurone,  Fluridone,  Flutolanil,  Fluvalinate,  Formetanate,  Heptachlor,  Heptachlor epoxide,  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB),  Hexazinone,  Hexythiazox,  Hydroprene,  Hydroxychlorothalonil,  Imazalil,  Imidacloprid,  Imidacloprid 5-hydroxy,  Imidacloprid olefin,  Indoxacarb,  Iprodione,  Kresoxim-methyl,  Lindane,  Linuron,  MGK-264,  MGK-326,  Malathion,  Mandipropamide,  Mesotrione,  Metalaxyl,  Metalaxyl Total,  Metconazole,  Methamidophos,  Methidathion,  Methiocarb,  Methomyl,  Methoprene,  Methoxyfenozide,  Metolachlor,  Metribuzin,  Myclobutanil,  Naled,  Norflurazon,  Norflurazon desmethyl,  Novaluron,  Omethoate,  Oxamyl,  Oxyfluorfen,  Paradichlorobenzene,  Parathion ethyl,  Parathion methyl,  Pendimethalin,  Permethrin total,  Phenothrin,  Phorate,  Phosalone,  Phosmet,  Phosmet OA,  Piperonyl butoxide,  Pirimiphos methyl,  Potasan,  Prallethrin,  Prodiamine,  Profenofos,  Pronamide,  Propachlor,  Propanil,  Propargite,  Propazine,  Propetamphos,  Propham,  Propiconazole,  Prothioconazole,  Pymetrozine,  Pyraclostrobin,  Pyrethrins,  Thiamethoxam,  Pyridaben,  Pyrimethanil,  Pyriproxyfen,  Quinoxyfen,  Quintozene (PCNB),  Resmethrin total,  Sethoxydim,  Simazine,  Spinetoram,  Spinosad,  Spirodiclofen,  Spiromesifen,  Spirotetramat,  Sulfoxaflor,  Tebuconazole,  Tebufenozide,  Tebuthiuron,  Tefluthrin,  Tetrachlorvinphos,  Tetraconazole,  Tetradifon,  Tetramethrin,  Thiabendazole,  Thiacloprid,  Thymol,  Tolfenpyrad,  Triadimefon,  Triadimenol,  Tribufos (DEF),  Trifloxystrobin,  Triflumizole,  Trifluralin,  Triticonazole,  Vinclozolin,  DDE p,p', 

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